Israel’s Constitution of 1958 – Constituição de Israel


PDF generated: 17 Jan 2018, 17:06

constituteproject.org

Israel’s Constitution of 1958
with Amendments through
2013

Subsequently amended

This complete constitution has been generated from excerpts of texts from the repository of the
Comparative Constitutions Project, and distributed on constituteproject.org.

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Table of contents

Basic Law: The Knesset (1958) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

1. What the Knesset is . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

2. Place of sitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

3. Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

4. Electoral system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

5. The right to vote . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
5A. The right to present a list of candidates (Amendments 19 and 21) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
6. The right to be elected (Amendments 8, 10, 22, and 26) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

6A. Restriction on the candidacy of a Knesset member seceding from his faction (Amendments
12, 21 and 36) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

7. Who shall not be a candidate (Amendments 2, 21, and 33) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
7A. Prevention of participation of candidates’ list (Amendments 9, 35, and 39) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

8. Term of office of the Knesset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

9. Date of elections (Amendment 1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
9A. Extending the Knesset’s term (Amendment 15) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

10. Election day to be a day of rest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

11. Publication of election results (Amendment 20) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

12. Convening of the Knesset (Amendment 37) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

13. Amendments 27, and 37 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

14. The opening meeting (Amendment 23) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

15. Declaration of allegiance by members of the Knesset (Amendment 23) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

16. Failure to make declaration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1316A. Failure to make declaration due to dual citizenship (Amendment 22) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

17. Immunity of Knesset members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

18. Immunity of Knesset buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

19. Procedure and rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

20. Chairman and Vice-Chairmen (Amendments 24, 27, 34 and 37) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
20A. Acting Chairman and Interim Chairman of Knesset (Amendments 4, 24 and 27) . . . . . . . . . 14

21. Committees (Amendments 13, 14, 16, and 28) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
21A. Knesset supervision of secondary legislation (Amendment 30) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

22. Commissions of inquiry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

23. Government member who is not a member of the Knesset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

24. Quorum (Amendment 6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

25. Majority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

26. Meetings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

27. Publicity of meetings (Amendment 17) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

28. Publication (Amendment 17) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

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29. Amendment 17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
30. Amendment 17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
31. Sessions (Amendments 5 and 29) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1632. Amendment 31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
33. Amendments 25, 27, and 29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
34. Dissolution of the Knesset (Amendment 15) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
35. Date of elections after dissolution of the Knesset (Amendment 30) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
36. Term of office of the Knesset after dissolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1736A. Dispersion due to failure to adopt budget (Amendment 30) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
37. Continuity of the Knesset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
38. Extension of validity of enactments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
39. Remuneration of members of the Knesset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
40. Resignation of member of the Knesset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

41. Consequences of resignation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

42. Termination of tenure or candidacy (Amendment 33) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
42A. Knesset member who has been convicted (Amendments 7, 18, 26, and 32) . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
42B. Suspension (Amendments 7, 26 and 38) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

43. Replacement of Knesset member (Amendment 7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

44. Law not to be affected by emergency regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

45. Entrenched sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
45A. Application of entrenchment (Amendment 15) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

46. Special majority when required (Amendments 3, 11, and 15) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Basic Law: Israel Lands (1960) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

1. Prohibition of transfer of ownership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

2. Permission by Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

3. Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Basic Law: The President of the State (1964) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

1. Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

2. Place of residence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

3. Election and period of tenure (Amendments 2 and 4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

4. Eligibility (Amendment 4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

5. Date of election (Amendment 8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

6. Proposal of candidates (Amendment 8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

7. Voting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

8. Election by majority of votes (Amendments 7 and 9) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

9. Declaration of allegiance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

10. Making of declaration and commencement of period of tenure (Amendment 4) . . . . . . . . . . 21

11. Functions and powers (Amendments 3 and 5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

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12. Counter-signature (Amendments 2 and 5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

13. Immunity with regard to discharge of functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

14. Immunity from criminal proceedings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

15. Evidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

16. Salary and other payments (Amendment 1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

17. President to hold no other office . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

18. Departure for abroad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

19. Resignation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

20. Removal of President from office . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

21. Vacation of post for reasons of health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

22. Temporary cessation of exercise of office (Amendment 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

23. Interim President and Acting President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

24. Notices in Reshumot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

25. Law not to be affected by emergency regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

26. Repeal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

27. Transitional provision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Basic Law: The State Economy (1975) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

1. Taxes, compulsory loans, and fees (Amendment 1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

2. State property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

3. The State Budget (Amendments 1, 2, and 7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
3A. Multi-annual budget (Amendment 4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
3B. Failure to adopt budget (Amendment 5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
3C. Legislation requiring a budget (Amendment 6, Announcements 1 and 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

4. Currency notes and coins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

5. Inspection (Amendment 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Basic Law: The Military (1976) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

1. Defence Army of Israel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

2. Subordination to civil authority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

3. Chief of the General Staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

4. Duty to serve and recruitment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

5. Instructions and orders in the Army . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

6. Other armed forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel (1980) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

1. Jerusalem, Capital of Israel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

2. Seat of the President, the Knesset, the Government and the Supreme Court . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

3. Protection of Holy Places . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

4. Development of Jerusalem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

5. Area of the jurisdiction of Jerusalem (Amendment 1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

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6. Prohibition of the transfer of authority (Amendment 1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

7. Entrenchment (Amendment 1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Basic Law: The Judiciary (1984) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30Chapter One: Basic Provisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

1. Judicial power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

2. Independence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

3. Publicity of proceedings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Chapter Two: Judges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

4. Appointment of judges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

5. Nationality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

6. Declaration of allegiance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

7. Period of tenure (Amendment 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

8. Retired judge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

9. Restriction on re-posting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

10. Salary and benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

11. Judge not to engage in additional occupation, etc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

12. Criminal proceedings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

13. Disciplinary proceedings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

14. Suspension (Amendment 1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Chapter Three: The Courts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

15. Supreme Court . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

16. Other courts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

17. Appeal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

18. Further hearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

19. Retrial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

20. Established rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

21. Registrar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Chapter Four: Miscellaneous Provisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

22. Law not to be affected by emergency regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

23. Provisions to be prescribed by Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

24. Provisions to be prescribed under Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Basic Law: The State Comptroller (1988) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

1. Essence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

2. State Audit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

3. Duty to provide information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

4. Comptroller as Commissioner for Complaints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

5. Additional tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

6. Accountability to the Knesset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

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7. Election and Term of office (Amendment 1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

8. Qualifications (Amendment 1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

9. Pledge of allegiance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

10. Budget . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

11. Salary and emoluments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

12. Contact with Knesset and issuance of reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

13. Removal from office (Amendment 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

14. Acting State Comptroller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Basic Law: Human Dignity and Liberty (1992) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

1. Basic principles (Amendment 1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
1A. Purpose (Amendment 1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

2. Preservation of life, body and dignity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

3. Protection of property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

4. Protection of life, body and dignity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

5. Personal liberty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

6. Leaving and entering Israel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

7. Privacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

8. Violation of rights (Amendment 1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

9. Reservation regarding security forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

10. Validity of laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

11. Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

12. Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39Basic Law: Freedom of Occupation (1994) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

1. Basic principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

2. Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

3. Freedom of occupation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

4. Violation of freedom of occupation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

5. Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

6. Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

7. Entrenchment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

8. Effect of nonconforming law (Amendment 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

9. Repeal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

10. Provisional (Amendments 1 and 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

11. Amendment of Basic Law: Human Dignity and Liberty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40Basic Law: The Government (2001) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

1. What the Government is . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

2. Seat of Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

3. Confidence of the Knesset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

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4. Responsibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

5. Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

6. Eligibility of Ministers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

7. Assignment of task of forming Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

8. Periods for formation of Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

9. Re-assignment of task . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

10. Assignment of task at the request of party groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

11. Early elections in the event of failure to form a government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

12. Discontinuance of proceedings for formation of Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

13. Formation of Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

14. Declaration of allegiance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

15. Cooption of a Minister . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

16. Acting Prime Minister . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

17. Interrogation and impeachment of the Prime Minister . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

18. Removal from office pursuant to an offense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

19. Resignation of Prime Minister . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

20. Death or permanent incapacity of Prime Minister . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

21. Prime Minister or Acting Prime Minister ceasing to function as members of Knesset . . . . . . 45

22. Termination of tenure of Minister . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

23. Termination of tenure of Minister pursuant to an offense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

24. Acting Minister . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

25. Deputy Ministers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

26. Termination of service of a Deputy Minister . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

27. Termination of tenure of Deputy Minister pursuant to an offense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

28. Expression of no confidence in the Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

29. Authority to disperse the Knesset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

30. Continuity of Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

31. Functioning of the Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

32. Residual powers of Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

33. Delegation of powers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

34. Assumption of powers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

35. Secrecy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

36. Salaries and pensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

37. Regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

38. Declaration of a state of emergency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

39. State of emergency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

40. Declaration of war . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

41. Inapplicability of emergency laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

42. The Government and Knesset committees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

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43. Change in election date . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

44. Permanence of the Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

45. Amendment of Basic Law: The Knesset – No. 30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

46. Repeal of The Basic Law: The Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

47. Effect and applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

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Basic Law: The Knesset (1958)

• Structure of legislative chamber(s) 1. What the Knesset is

The Knesset is the parliament of the State.

2. Place of sitting
The place of sitting of the Knesset is Jerusalem.

• Size of first chamber

3. Composition
The Knesset shall, upon its election, consist of one hundred and twenty members.

• Secret ballot

4. Electoral system
• First chamber selection

The Knesset shall be elected by general, national, direct, equal, secret and
proportional elections, in accordance with the Knesset Elections Law; this section
shall not be varied save by a majority of the members of the Knesset.

• Claim of universal suffrage

5. The right to vote
Every Israel national of or over the age of eighteen years shall have the right to vote
in elections to the Knesset, unless a court has deprived him of that right by virtue of
any Law; the Elections Law shall determine the time at which a person shall be
considered to be eighteen years of age for the purpose of the exercise of the right to
vote in elections to the Knesset.

• First chamber selection

5A. The right to present a list of candidates (Amendments
19 and 21)

A list of candidates for the Knesset shall be submitted only by a party; The means of
association and registering of parties and the conditions for submitting a list of
candidates shall be determined by law.

• Electoral commission

6. The right to be elected (Amendments 8, 10, 22, and 26)
• Minimum age for first chamber

a. Every Israel national who on the day of the admission of a candidates list
• Eligibility for first chamber

containing his name is twenty-one years of age or over shall have the right to be
elected to the Knesset, unless a court has deprived him of that right by virtue of
Law, or he has been sentenced, by a final judgment, to a penalty of actual
imprisonment for a term exceeding three months and on the day of submission
of the list of candidates seven years have not yet passed since the day when he
terminated his period of imprisonment, unless the chairman of the Central
Elections Committee has determined that the offence of which he has been
convicted, in accordance with the circumstances, does not bear moral turpitude.

b. [Annulled]
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• Eligibility for first chamber

• Eligibility for first chamber
• Outside professions of legislators

c. A candidate for the Knesset who has been sentenced as specified in subsection
(a) and whose judgment has become final after the submission of the list of
candidates and before he has assumed tenure as a Knesset member, will be
deemed to have withdrawn from the list of candidates that includes his name, or
from his tenure in the Knesset, as relevant, unless the chairman of the Central
Elections Committee has determined that the offence of which he has been
convicted, in accordance with the circumstances, does not bear moral turpitude.
d. The determination of the chairman of the Central Elections Committee under
subsections (a) and (c) is not required if the court has stated by law that the
offence, in accordance with the circumstances, does bear moral turpitude.
e. For the purpose of this section –
• “Actual imprisonment” means the sum of all terms of actual imprisonment
the convicted person must serve in a single continuous period, even if
ordered in different sentences, including suspended sentences that have
been activated;
• “Offence” means each of the offences for which a period of actual
imprisonment has been ordered.
6A. Restriction on the candidacy of a Knesset member
seceding from his faction (Amendments 12, 21 and 36)

a. A Knesset member seceding from his faction and failing to tender his resignation
as a Knesset member in close proximity to his secession, shall not be included, in
the election for the next Knesset, in the list of candidates submitted by a party
that was represented by a faction of the outgoing Knesset; This provision does
not apply to the splitting of a faction under the conditions prescribed by law.
b. For the purposes of this section –
• “Secession from a faction ” – including voting in the Knesset plenum not in
accordance with the faction’s position regarding the expression of
confidence or no confidence in the government; however, such voting shall
not be deemed as secession if the Knesset member has not received any
consideration in exchange for his vote;
• “Consideration ” – means directly or indirectly, by a promise or future
commitment, including the assurance of a place on a list of candidates for
the Knesset, or the appointment of the Knesset member himself or
someone else to a certain position.
7. Who shall not be a candidate (Amendments 2, 21, and
33)
The following shall not be candidates for the Knesset:

1. the President of the State;
2. the two Chief Rabbis;
3. a judge (shofet);
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• Eligibility for first chamber

• Terrorism

• Eligibility for first chamber

• Electoral commission
• Supreme court powers

4. a judge (dayan) of a religious court;
5. the State Comptroller;
6. the Chief of the General Staff of the Defense Army of Israel;
7. rabbis and ministers of other religions, while holding paid office;
8. senior State employees and Army officers of such grades or ranks and in
such functions as shall be determined by Law.
9. policemen and prison warders of such ranks and positions as shall be
determined by law;
10. employees of corporations established by law of such ranks and positions
as shall be determined by law.
Unless they have ceased to serve in the aforementioned position or office, prior to
the date for submitting the lists of candidates for the Knesset, and if an earlier date
has been set by law prior to the set date.

7A. Prevention of participation of candidates’ list
(Amendments 9, 35, and 39)

a. A candidates’ list shall not participate in elections to the Knesset, and a person
shall not be a candidate for election to the Knesset, if the objects or actions of
the list or the actions of the person, expressly or by implication, include one of
the following:
1. negation of the existence of the State of Israel as a Jewish and democratic
state;
2. incitement to racism;
3. support of armed struggle, by a hostile state or a terrorist organization,
against the State of Israel.
a1. For the purposes of this section, a candidate that was at a hostile state
unlawfully within the seven years preceding the date for submitting the
candidates’ list, is deemed a person whose actions express support of armed
struggle against the State of Israel, as long as he has not proven otherwise.

b. The decision of the Central Elections Committee that a candidate is prevented
from participating in the elections requires the affirmation of the Supreme
Court of Israel.
c. A candidate will make a declaration for the purposes of this section.
d. Particulars regarding the hearing at the Central Elections Committee and at the
Supreme Court of Israel, as well as regarding a declaration under subsection (c)
shall be prescribed by law.
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• Term length for first chamber 8. Term of office of the Knesset

The term of office of the Knesset shall be four years from the day on which it is
elected.

• Scheduling of elections

9. Date of elections (Amendment 1)
The elections to the Knesset shall take place on the third Tuesday of the month of
Cheshvan in the year in which the tenure of the outgoing Knesset ends, But if the
year which preceded that year was a leap year, the elections shall take place on the
first Tuesday of that month.

9A. Extending the Knesset’s term (Amendment 15)

a. The Knesset shall not extend its term except by law passed by a majority of
eighty members of the Knesset and only if special circumstances exist that
prevent holding the elections at their proper time; the period of extension shall
not exceed the time necessary due to the aforementioned circumstances; the
election date shall be fixed by the aforementioned law.
b. Without prejudice to the provisions of section 34, the Knesset may, by a
resolution passed by the majority of its members, advance the date of elections
fixed under subsection (a), provided that the new date is no earlier than the date
fixed for Knesset elections under section 9.
10. Election day to be a day of rest
Election Day shall be a day of rest, but transport services and other public services
shall function normally.

11. Publication of election results (Amendment 20)
The results of the elections shall he published in “Reshumot” within eight days from
Election Day.

12. Convening of the Knesset (Amendment 37)
The Knesset shall convene for its first meeting, after the election results are
published, within fourteen days of Election Day on the date fixed by law, unless an
earlier date is prescribed by law due to a rest day, holiday, festival day, memorial day,
or due to proximity to one of them, or due to the intermediate days of certain Jewish
festivals.

13. Amendments 27, and 37

[Annulled]

14. The opening meeting (Amendment 23)
The procedures of the opening meeting shall be prescribed by law and shall express
the character of the State of Israel and its heritage.

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15. Declaration of allegiance by members of the Knesset
(Amendment 23)
a. A Knesset member shall make a declaration of allegiance; the declaration shall
read as follows:
“I pledge myself to bear allegiance to the State of Israel and faithfully to
discharge my mandate in the Knesset.”

b. Procedures for the declarations shall be prescribed by law.
16. Failure to make declaration
Where the Chairman of the Knesset has called upon a member of the Knesset to
make his declaration of allegiance and the member has not done so, the member
shall not enjoy the rights of a member of the Knesset so long as he has not made the
declaration.

• Eligibility for first chamber

16A. Failure to make declaration due to dual citizenship
(Amendment 22)

Has the Knesset member been the holder of an additional non-Israeli citizenship, and
the laws of the country whose citizenship he holds permit his release from such
citizenship, he shall not declare allegiance until after he has done everything
required on his part to be released from such citizenship, and he shall not enjoy the
rights of a Knesset member until he makes his declaration.

• Immunity of legislators

17. Immunity of Knesset members
The members of the Knesset shall have immunity; particulars shall be prescribed by
Law.

18. Immunity of Knesset buildings
The building of the Knesset shall have immunity; particulars shall be prescribed by
Law.

19. Procedure and rules
The Knesset shall itself prescribe its procedure; in so far as such procedure has not
been prescribed by Law, the Knesset shall prescribe it by its Rules; so long as the
procedure has not been prescribed as aforesaid, the Knesset shall follow its accepted
practice and routine

• Leader of first chamber

20. Chairman and Vice-Chairmen (Amendments 24, 27, 34
and 37)
a. The Knesset shall elect from among its members a Chairman and
Vice-Chairmen. Until the Chairman is elected, the most senior Knesset member
who is not the Prime Minister, a Minister or Deputy Minister, shall serve as
Interim Chairman. In this section, “senior” means the one whose term of office in
the Knesset is the longest, consecutively or non-consecutively, and among those
with equal seniority – the oldest.
b. The Knesset may, in its Rules, set restrictions on the election of a Knesset
member to serve as Chairman or Vice-Chairman.
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c. The Knesset may, by a resolution passed by a majority of its members, suspend
the Chairman or a Vice-Chairman or set restrictions on their post; particulars to
be set by law.
d. The Knesset may, by a resolution passed by a majority of its members or by a
larger majority as may be prescribed by law, to remove from post the Chairman
or a Vice-Chairman; particulars to be set by law.
• Leader of first chamber

20A. Acting Chairman and Interim Chairman of Knesset
(Amendments 4, 24 and 27)

a. Whenever the Chairman of the Knesset leaves the territory of the State, a
Vice-Chairman shall serve as Acting Chairman until his return.
• Legislative committees

b. Whenever the Chairman of the Knesset notifies the House Committee, or if the
House Committee decides, that for reasons of health the Chairman of the
Knesset is temporarily unable to carry out his functions, or the Chairman
announces that he is temporarily unable to perform his duties and the House
Committee acknowledges his announcement, a Vice-Chairman shall serve as
Acting Chairman until the Chairman notifies the House Committee or until the
House Committee decides that the Chairman is no longer unable to carry out his
functions.
c. When the post of Chairman of the Knesset has fallen vacant – because the
Chairman has resigned or has died or because the House Committee has
decided that for reasons of health he is permanently unable to carry out his
functions – a Vice-Chairman shall serve as Interim Chairman until the Knesset
elects a new Chairman.
c1.

1. If the Chairman of the Knesset is suspended from his post by a decision
under Section 20(c), a Vice-Chairman shall serve as Acting Chairman until
the suspension is lifted or until the election of a new Chairman, as relevant.
2. If the Chairman of the Knesset is removed from his post by a decision under
Section 20(d), a Vice-Chairman shall serve as Acting Chairman until the
election of a new Chairman.
d. The Vice-Chairman who is to serve as Acting Chairman or Interim Chairman of
the Knesset shall be elected in that behalf by the House Committee.
e. During his tenure as Acting Chairman or Interim Chairman of the Knesset, the
Vice-Chairman shall serve in every capacity assigned to the Chairman of the
Knesset by law, shall carry out every function imposed upon the Chairman of the
Knesset by law and shall exercise every power vested in the Chairman of the
Knesset by law.
f. The provisions of this section shall also apply, mutatis mutandis, if the
circumstances envisaged in subsection (a), (b), (c) or (c1) with regard to the
Chairman of the Knesset exist with regard to a Vice-Chairman who is serving as
Acting Chairman or Interim Chairman.
• Legislative committees

21. Committees (Amendments 13, 14, 16, and 28)
• Standing committees

a. The Knesset shall elect from among its members permanent committees, and it
may elect from among its members committees for specific matters; the
functions, powers and procedure of the committees shall, in so far as they are
not prescribed by Law, be prescribed by the Rules.
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• Legislative committees

• Legislative oversight of the executive

• Establishment of cabinet/ministers

• Quorum for legislative sessions

b. The Rules may prescribe provisions concerning the committees’ authority to
summon an office holder or a functionary of the Civil Service, municipal
authority, religious council, corporation established by law or government
corporation, and to oblige him to provide information on the activity of the body
in which he serves, unless such disclosure entails a violation of a law, or of a
professional duty or an obligation of trust to which he is bound by law, and he
shall be assured the rights of a witness before a court; the summon shall be
issued under the auspices of the relevant Minister or with his knowledge, and
for someone who is not in the Civil Service under the auspices of the head of the
body in which the invitee serves; However, the appointed Minister or the head
of the body in which the invitee serves may inform the committee that he
himself will appear in place of the invitee.
c. [Annulled]
21A. Knesset supervision of secondary legislation
(Amendment 30)

a. Regulations enacted by a Minister whose violation entails criminal punishment
shall not enter into force, unless they have been approved prior to publication
by a committees of the Knesset committees responsible for that matter; should
the committee fail to approve or reject the regulations within 45 days of
receiving the regulations, the regulations will be deemed approved.
b. The provisions of this subsection do not prejudice the provisions of any Basic
Law or other law regarding regulations.
22. Commissions of inquiry
The Knesset may appoint commissions of inquiry – either by empowering one of the
permanent committees in that behalf or by electing a commission from among its
members – to investigate matters designated by the Knesset; the powers and
functions of a commission of inquiry shall be prescribed by the Knesset; every
commission of inquiry shall include also representatives of factions which do not
participate in the Government, in accordance with the relative strength of the
factions in the Knesset.

23. Government member who is not a member of the
Knesset
A member of the Government who is not a member of the Knesset shall, as to
everything relating to the Knesset, have the same status as a member of the
Government who is a member of the Knesset, except that he shall not have the right
to vote.

24. Quorum (Amendment 6)
The Knesset shall hold debates and pass decisions whatever the number of members
present, save as otherwise provided by Law.

25. Majority
Save as otherwise provided by Law, the Knesset shall pass its decisions by a majority
of those participating in the voting – those abstaining not being reckoned as
participating – and the voting procedure shall be prescribed by the Rules.

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26. Meetings
The meetings of the Knesset shall be held at its place of sitting: Provided that in
special circumstances the Chairman of the Knesset may, in consultation with the
Vice-Chairmen, convene the Knesset elsewhere. The meetings of the Knesset shall
take place on workdays.

• Public or private sessions

27. Publicity of meetings (Amendment 17)
The Knesset shall sit in public.

• Publication of deliberations

28. Publication (Amendment 17)
The publication of proceedings taken and utterances made at an open meeting is not
restricted and does not entail any criminal or civil liability.

29. Amendment 17

[Annulled]

30. Amendment 17

[Annulled]

• Length of legislative sessions

31. Sessions (Amendments 5 and 29)
Orders concerning the periods of Knesset sessions and the convening of the Knesset
out of session shall be prescribed by law.

32. Amendment 31

[Annulled]

33. Amendments 25, 27, and 29

[Annulled]

• Dismissal of the legislature

34. Dissolution of the Knesset (Amendment 15)
The Knesset shall not decide to dissolve itself before the expiration of its term of
office save by adopting a Law for that purpose passed by a majority of the members
of the Knesset.

35. Date of elections after dissolution of the Knesset
(Amendment 30)
The Law concerning the dissolution of the Knesset shall contain a provision as to the
date of the elections to the next Knesset, which shall be no later than five months
from the day the law is passed.

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• Term length for first chamber

• Budget bills
• Dismissal of the legislature

• Compensation of legislators

36. Term of office of the Knesset after dissolution
If the Knesset decides to dissolve itself, the term of office of the next Knesset shall
run until the month of Cheshvan next following the termination of four years from
the day of its election.

36A. Dispersion due to failure to adopt budget
(Amendment 30)

a. Non-adoption of the Budget Law within three months subsequent to the
beginning of the fiscal year will be considered to be a Knesset decision on its
dispersion, prior to the completion of its term of service, on the day following
the end of this period (hereafter: the determining date), and early elections will
be held on the last Tuesday before the end of 90 days of the determining date,
unless the Knesset decides by a majority vote of its members, within five days of
the determining date, that because of the proximity of the date of elections to a
holiday, festival day or memorial day, to postpone the elections to a date no later
than 100 days from the determining date.
b. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a), should the President of the
State begin procedures to form a new Government under section 30 of The
Basic Law: The Government, or should a law be adopted to disperse the Knesset,
or should elections to the Knesset be held, after the date for submission of the
Draft Budget under section 3 of The Basic Law: The State Economy and before
the passage of three months from the beginning of the fiscal year, the
determining day under subsection (a), shall be three months from the beginning
of the fiscal year or 45 days from the constitution of the Government, whichever
is later.
37. Continuity of the Knesset
The outgoing Knesset shall continue to hold office until the convening of the
incoming Knesset.

38. Extension of validity of enactments
Any enactment due to expire during the last two months of the term of office of the
outgoing Knesset or within four months after the Knesset has decided to dissolve
itself or during the first three months of the term of office of the incoming Knesset
shall continue in force until the expiration of the said three months.

39. Remuneration of members of the Knesset
The members of the Knesset shall receive a remuneration as provided by Law.

40. Resignation of member of the Knesset
A member of the Knesset may resign his office; resignation shall be by personal
presentation of a letter of resignation by the resigning member to the Chairman of
the Knesset or, if the member is unable to present the letter of resignation
personally, by transmission thereof in the manner prescribed by the Rules; the letter
of resignation shall be signed on the day of the presentation or transmission.

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41. Consequences of resignation
If a member of the Knesset tenders his resignation, his membership of the Knesset
shall cease forty-eight hours after the letter of resignation reaches the Chairman of
the Knesset, unless the member withdraws resignation before then.

• Removal of individual legislators

42. Termination of tenure or candidacy (Amendment 33)
If a member of the Knesset, or a candidate to the Knesset, is elected or appointed to
one of the posts the holders of which are debarred from being candidates for the
Knesset, his membership of the Knesset or his candidacy to the Knesset, as relevant,
shall cease upon his election or appointment to one of the above positions; For this
purpose, “a candidate for the Knesset” – means one whose name is included in the
candidates’ list for the Knesset, from the day the list is submitted until the day of the
beginning of his tenure as a member of the Knesset.

• Attorney general 42A. Knesset member who has been convicted

• Removal of individual legislators

(Amendments 7, 18, 26, and 32)

a. Should a Knesset member be convicted, by final judgment, of a criminal offence,
and the court, by its own initiative or at the request of the Attorney-General has
stated that the offence carry moral turpitude, his membership of the Knesset
shall end on the day the judgment becomes final, no matter if the offence was
committed when he was a member of that same Knesset, a member of a
previous Knesset, or before he was a member of the Knesset.
b. Subsection (a) shall apply also to a Knesset member whose judgment became
final after he began to serve as a member of the Knesset; the request of the
Attorney-General in accordance with subsection (a) may be submitted as long as
the judgment has not become final; the request shall be submitted to the court
that handed the judgment, and if an appeal has been filed, to the court of appeal.
• Removal of individual legislators

42B. Suspension (Amendments 7, 26 and 38)

a. Where a Knesset member has been convicted of a criminal offence, and the
court, by its own initiative or at the request of the Attorney-General has stated
that the offence carry moral turpitude, he shall be suspended from office as a
Knesset member from the day the court’s judgment was handed and until the
time when the judgment becomes final.
b. Where a Knesset member has been convicted of a criminal offence and
sentenced to imprisonment, he shall be suspended from his office as a Knesset
member for the period during which he is undergoing his penalty of
imprisonment.
b1. The orders of this section shall also apply to a Knesset member who has been
convicted of an offence as stated in Subsection (a) or (b) before becoming a
Knesset member.

• Replacement of legislators

43. Replacement of Knesset member (Amendment 7)
a. If the seat of a member of the Knesset falls vacant, it shall be filled by the
candidate who, in the list of candidates which included the name of the late
member, figured immediately after the last of the elected candidates.
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b. Where a person’s membership of the Knesset has been suspended under section
42B, his seat shall become vacant for the period of the suspension and his place
shall be taken by the candidate referred to in subsection (a). If he resumes his
seat, the last of the list of candidates who became a Knesset member shall cease
to hold office, but his right to become again a Knesset member thereafter, by
virtue of the provision of subsection (a), shall not be affected thereby.
• Emergency provisions

44. Law not to be affected by emergency regulations
Notwithstanding the provision of any other law, this Law cannot be varied,
suspended, or made subject to conditions, by emergency regulations.

• Constitution amendment procedure 45. Entrenched sections

Section 44, or this section, shall not be varied save by a majority of eighty members
of the Knesset.

• Constitution amendment procedure

45A. Application of entrenchment (Amendment 15)

Section 45 shall also apply with regard to variation of Section 9A(a).

• Constitution amendment procedure

46. Special majority when required (Amendments 3, 11,
and 15)
The majority required by this Law for a variation of section 4, 9A, 34, 44 or 45 shall
be required for decisions of the Knesset plenary at the first, second and third
readings. In this section, “variation” means both an express and an implicit variation.

Basic Law: Israel Lands (1960)

1. Prohibition of transfer of ownership
The ownership of Israel lands, being the lands in Israel of the State, the Development
Authority or the Keren Kayemet Le-Israel, shall not be transferred either by sale or
in any other manner.

2. Permission by Law
Section 1 shall not apply to classes of lands and classes of transactions determined
for that purpose by Law.

3. Definition
In this Law, “lands” means land, houses, buildings and anything permanently fixed to
land.

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Basic Law: The President of the State (1964)

• Name/structure of executive(s) 1. Status

A President shall stand at the head of the State.

2. Place of residence
The place of residence of the President of the State shall be Jerusalem.

3. Election and period of tenure (Amendments 2 and 4)
• Head of state selection

a. The President of the State shall be elected by the Knesset for seven years.
• Head of state term length
• Head of state term limits b. The President will serve for one term only.

• Eligibility for head of state

4. Eligibility (Amendment 4)
Every Israel national who is a resident of Israel is qualified to be a candidate for the
office of President of the State.

• Scheduling of elections

5. Date of election (Amendment 8)
The election of the President of the State shall be held not earlier than ninety days
and not later than thirty days before the expiration of the period of tenure of the
President in office. If the place of the President of the State falls vacant before the
expiration of his period of tenure, the election shall be held within forty-five days
from the day on which such place falls vacant. The Chairman of the Knesset, in
consultation with the Vice-Chairmen, shall fix the day of the election and shall notify
it to all the members of the Knesset in writing at least three weeks in advance. If the
day of the election does not fall in one of the session terms of the Knesset, the
Chairman of the Knesset shall convene the Knesset for the election of the President
of the State.

• Head of state selection

6. Proposal of candidates (Amendment 8)
a.

1. A proposal of a candidate for President of the State shall be submitted in
writing to the Chairman of the Knesset, together with the consent of the
candidate in writing, on the fourteenth day before the day of the election; A
member of the Knesset shall not sponsor the proposal of more than one
candidate;
2. A person any ten or more members of the Knesset proposed his candidacy
shall be candidate for President of the State, except if the number of
sponsors decreased below ten because of the deletion of the name of a
member of the Knesset as described in subsection (3);
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3. Where a member of the Knesset sponsored the proposal of more than one
candidate, the name of that member of the Knesset shall be deleted from
the list of sponsors for all candidates he sponsored; Where the number of
sponsors of a candidate decreased below ten because of the deletion of a
name from the list of sponsors, a member of the Knesset who did not
sponsor any proposal may add his name to the list of sponsors of that
candidate, no later than eight days before the day of the election.
b. The Chairman of the Knesset shall notify all the members of the Knesset, in
writing, not later than seven days before the day of the election, of every
candidate proposed and of the names of the members of the Knesset who have
proposed him, and shall announce the candidates at the opening of the meeting
at which the election is held.
• Head of state selection

7. Voting
The election of the President of the State shall be by secret ballot at a meeting of the
Knesset assigned only for that purpose.

• Head of state selection

8. Election by majority of votes (Amendments 7 and 9)
a. If there are two candidates or more, the candidate who has received the votes of
a majority of the members of the Knesset is elected. If no candidate receives
such a majority, a second ballot shall be held. At the second ballot only the two
candidates who received the largest number of votes at the first ballot shall
stand for election. The candidate who at the second ballot receives a majority of
the votes of the members of the Knesset who take part in the voting and vote for
one of the candidates is elected. If two candidates receive the same number of
votes, voting shall be repeated.
b. If there is only one candidate, the ballot will be in favor or against him and he is
elected if the number of votes in his favor outweighs the number of votes
against him. If the number of votes in his favor equals the number of votes
against him, a second ballot shall be held.
c. If no President of the State is elected under subsection (b), a repeat ballot shall
be held within thirty days of the day of the ballot with accordance to Sections 5
to 7 and this Section, but the proposal of a candidate shall be submitted no later
than seven days before the day of the election.
• Oaths to abide by constitution

9. Declaration of allegiance
The President-Elect shall make and sign before the Knesset the following declaration
of allegiance:

“I pledge myself to bear allegiance to the State of Israel and to its laws and faithfully
to carry out my functions as President of the State.”.

10. Making of declaration and commencement of period of
tenure (Amendment 4)
a. The President-Elect shall make his declaration of allegiance upon the expiration
of the period of tenure of the preceding President of the State or as soon as
possible beforehand, and shall begin to hold office upon the expiration of the
period of tenure of the preceding President of the State.
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b. If the place of the preceding President of the State falls vacant before the
expiration of his period of tenure, the President-Elect shall make his declaration
of allegiance as soon as possible after his election and shall begin to hold office
upon making his declaration of allegiance.
• Head of state powers

11. Functions and powers (Amendments 3 and 5)
a. The President of the State 1.
shall sign every Law, other than a Law relating to its powers;
2. shall carry out the functions assigned to him by Basic Law: The
Government;
3. shall receive from the Government a report on its meetings;
• Foreign affairs representative

4. shall accredit the diplomatic representatives of the State, shall receive the
credentials of diplomatic representatives sent to Israel by foreign states,
shall empower the consular representatives of the State and shall confirm
the appointments of consular representatives sent to Israel by foreign
states;
5. shall sign such conventions with foreign states as have been ratified by the
Knesset;
6. shall carry out every function assigned to him by Law in connection with the
appointment and removal from office of judges and other office-holder’s.
• Power to pardon

b. The President of the State shall have power to pardon offenders and to lighten
penalties by the reduction or commutation thereof.
c. The President of the State shall carry out every other function and have every
other power assigned to him by Law.
12. Counter-signature (Amendments 2 and 5)
The signature of the President of State on an official document, other than a
document connected with the formation of a Government or the dissolution of a
Knesset, shall require the countersignature of the Prime Minister or of such other
Minister as the Government may decide.

13. Immunity with regard to discharge of functions
a. The President of the State shall not be amenable to any court or tribunal, and
shall be immune from any legal act, in respect of anything connected with his
functions or powers.
b. The President of the State shall not, in giving evidence, have to disclose anything
which came to his knowledge in the discharge of his functions as President of the
State.
c. The immunity of the President of the State under this section shall continue
after he has ceased to be President of the State.
Israel 1958 (rev. 2013) Page 22

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• Head of state immunity

• Legislative committees

• Legislative committees
• Eligibility for head of state

• Head of state removal

• Legislative committees
• Head of state removal

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14. Immunity from criminal proceedings
The President of the State shall not be criminally prosecuted. The period during
which, by virtue of this section, the President of the State cannot be prosecuted for
an offence shall not be counted in calculating the period of prescription of that
offence.

15. Evidence
If the President of the State is required to give evidence, his evidence shall be taken
at such place and time as shall be determined with his sanction.

16. Salary and other payments (Amendment 1)
The salary of the President of the State, and other payments to be made to him
during his period of tenure, shall be fixed by resolution of the Knesset, which may
empower the Finance Committee in that behalf. Resolutions under this section shall
be published in “Reshumot”.

17. President to hold no other office
a. Save with the sanction of the House Committee of the Knesset, the President of
the State shall not hold any post, or exercise any function, other than the post
and functions of President of the State.
b. The President of the State shall be exempt from all compulsory service.

18. Departure for abroad
The President of the State shall not leave the territory of the State save with the
sanction of the Government.

19. Resignation
The President of the State may resign his office by submitting a letter of resignation
to the Chairman of the Knesset. The letter of resignation shall not require a
countersignature. The place of the President of the State shall become vacant
forty-eight hours after the letter of resignation reaches the Chairman of the Knesset.

20. Removal of President from office
a. The Knesset may, by resolution, remove the President of the State from office if
it finds that he is unworthy of his office owing to conduct unbecoming his status
as President of the State.
b. The Knesset shall not remove the President of the State from office, save
following a complaint brought before the House Committee by at least twenty
members of the Knesset and upon the proposal of the House Committee passed
by a three-quarters majority of the members of the Committee. A resolution by
the Knesset to remove the President from office shall require a three-quarters
majority of the members of the Knesset.
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c. The House Committee shall not propose the removal of the President of the
State from office before he has been given an opportunity to refute the
complaint in accordance with procedure prescribed by the Committee with the
approval of the Knesset, and the Knesset shall not resolve to remove the
President of the State from office before he has been given an opportunity to be
heard in accordance with procedure prescribed by the House Committee with
the approval of the Knesset.
d. The President of the State may be represented before the House Committee
and before the Knesset by an authorized representative. A member of the
Knesset shall not act as the representative of the President. The House
Committee and the Knesset may summon the President of the State to be
present at proceedings under this section.
e. Proceedings of the Knesset under this section shall be taken at a meeting, or
successive meetings, assigned solely for that purpose. The proceedings shall
begin not later than twenty days after the resolution of the House Committee.
The time of their beginning shall be notified by the Chairman of the Knesset to
all the members of the Knesset, in writing, at least ten days in advance. If the
beginning of the proceedings does not fall in one of the session terms of the
Knesset, the Chairman of the Knesset shall convene the Knesset for the
proceedings.
• Head of state removal

21. Vacation of post for reasons of health
a. The Knesset may, by resolution passed by a majority of its members, declare
that for reasons of health the President of the State is permanently unable to
carry out his functions.
b. The Knesset shall not pass a resolution as aforesaid save upon the proposal of
the House Committee passed by a two-thirds majority of its members on the
strength of a medical opinion given in accordance with rules prescribed by the
Committee.
c. If the Knesset resolves as aforesaid, the place of the President of the State shall
become vacant on the day of the resolution.
• Legislative committees

22. Temporary cessation of exercise of office (Amendment
2)
a. The President of the State shall temporarily cease to carry out his functions and
exercise his powers –
1. if he leaves the territory of the State – from the time of his leaving until his
return;
2. if he notifies the House Committee that he is temporarily unable to carry
out his functions and the Knesset Committee approves his notification by a
majority of votes – from the time of the approval of the notification until
the expiration of the period fixed by the Committee in its resolution or until
the President of the State notifies the House Committee that he is no
longer unable to carry out his functions, whichever is the earlier date;
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3. if the House Committee, by a two-thirds majority of its members, on the
strength of a medical opinion given in accordance with rules prescribed by
the Committee, resolves that for reasons of health the President of the
State is temporarily unable to carry out his functions – from the passing of
the resolution until the expiration of the period fixed by the House
Committee in the resolution or until the House Committee resolves that
the President is no longer unable to carry out his functions.
b. The House Committee shall not, under subsection (a)(2) or (3), fix a period
exceeding three months. It may extend the period, without a break, up to a
maximum of three additional months. Any further extension shall require a
resolution of the Knesset passed by a majority of the members of the Knesset
upon the proposal of the House Committee.
• Head of state replacement

23. Interim President and Acting President
a. If the place of the President of the State has fallen vacant, and so long as the new
President has not yet begun to hold office, the Chairman of the Knesset shall
hold office as Interim President of the State.
b. During a period in which the President of the State has temporarily ceased to
carry out his functions and exercise his powers, the Chairman of the Knesset
shall hold office as Acting President of the State.
c. While holding office as Interim President of the State or Acting President of the
State, the Chairman of the Knesset shall carry out the functions assigned to the
President of the State by Law and shall exercise the powers vested in the
President of the State by Law.
24. Notices in Reshumot
a. The Chairman of the Knesset shall publish a notice in “Reshumot” as to 1.
the commencement of the tenure of the President of the State;
2. the vacancy of the place of the President of the State;
3. the commencement and termination of the tenure of the Chairman of the
Knesset as Acting President of the State under section 22(a)(2) and (3).
b. The Prime Minister shall publish a notice in “Reshumot” as to the President’s
leaving the territory of the State and as to his return.
• Emergency provisions

25. Law not to be affected by emergency regulations
Notwithstanding the provisions of any other law, this Law cannot be varied,
suspended, or made subject to conditions, by emergency regulations.

26. Repeal
a. There are hereby repealed 1.
sections 2(c), 6 and 7 of the Transition Law, 5709-1949;
2. the State President (Tenure) Law, 5712-1951;
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b. The State President, Government Members and Chief Rabbis of Israel (Fixing of
Salaries) Law, 5711-1950, shall no longer apply to the salary of the President of
the State or to payments due to him or his survivors.
27. Transitional provision
The President of the State who was elected by the Knesset on the 27th Iyar, 5723
(21st May, 1963) shall be deemed to have been elected, and to hold office, under this
Law.

Basic Law: The State Economy (1975)

1. Taxes, compulsory loans, and fees (Amendment 1)
a. Taxes, compulsory loans and other compulsory payment shall not be imposed,
and their amounts shall not be varied, save by or under Law; the same shall apply
with regard to fees.
b. Where the amounts of any taxes, compulsory loans or other compulsory
payments, or fees, payable to the Treasury are not prescribed in the Law itself,
and the Law does not provide that the amounts prescribed therefore by
regulations shall require approval by the Knesset or by a committee of the
Knesset, the amounts prescribed therefore by regulations shall require approval
-in advance or within the period prescribed by the Law – by a decision of the
Knesset or of a committee of the Knesset empowered by it in that behalf.
2. State property
Transactions in State property and the acquisition of rights and assumption of
liabilities on behalf of the State shall be effected by a person empowered in that
behalf by or under Law.

• Budget bills

3. The State Budget (Amendments 1, 2, and 7)
a.

1. The State Budget shall be prescribed by Law.
2. The Budget shall be for one year and shall set out the expected and planned
expenditure of the Government.
b.

• Legislative committees

1. The Government shall lay the Budget Bill on the table of the Knesset at the
time prescribed by the Finance Committee of the Knesset but not later
than sixty days before the beginning of the fiscal year
2. The Budget Bill shall be detailed.
• Legislative committees

3. The detailed Budget Bill of the Ministry of Defense shall not be laid on the
table of the Knesset but on the table of a joint committee of the Finance
Committee and the Foreign Affairs and Security Committee of the Knesset.
4. The Budget Bill shall be accompanied by an estimate of the sources for
financing the Budget.
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c. In case of necessity, the Government may bring in an Additional Budget Bill
during the fiscal year.
d. Where it appears to the Government that the Budget Law will not be adopted
before the beginning of the fiscal year, it may bring in an Interim Budget Bill.
e. The Minister of Finance shall submit to the Knesset every year a report on the
implementation of the State Budget. Particulars shall be prescribed by Law.
• Budget bills

3A. Multi-annual budget (Amendment 4)

a. Towards every fiscal year, the Government shall prepare a multi-annual budget
plan that will include the Budget Bill for the coming year, as well as a budget plan
for the two following consecutive years.
b. The Government shall submit to the Knesset the multi-annual budget plan
together with the Budget Bill.
c. Every budget bill submitted by the Government to the Knesset shall be based on
the multi-annual budget plan prepared and submitted under with this Section in
the previous year.
• Budget bills

3B. Failure to adopt budget (Amendment 5)

a. In case of non-adoption of the Budget Law prior to the beginning of the fiscal
year, the Government is entitled to spend every month a sum equal to one
twelfth of the previous annual budget, with increase linked to the consumer
price index published by the Central Bureau of Statistics.
b. Funds under Subsection (a) shall be designated first of all to fulfill the State’s
obligations by virtue of law, contracts and treaties. The remainder shall be used
by the Government only for the operation of vital services and activities
included in the previous Budget Law.
• Constitution amendment procedure

c. This Section may not be altered, save by a majority of the members of the
Knesset.
• Budget bills

3C. Legislation requiring a budget (Amendment 6,
Announcements 1 and 2)

a. A Budgetary Bill shall not be passed by the Knesset, save with the votes of at
least 50 Members of the Knesset. The aforementioned majority is required in
the first, second and third readings. However, should a Bill turn into a Budgetary
Bill after first reading, the aforementioned majority is required in the second
and third readings.
b. A Budgetary Reservation shall not be passed by the Knesset, save with the votes
of at least 50 Members of the Knesset. Where a Budgetary Reservation to a bill
is passed, the Bill shall not pass the third reading save with the votes of at least
50 members of the Knesset.
• Legislative committees

c. The determination of the Budgetary Cost, for the purpose of this Section, of a
Bill or Reservation, shall be that of the Knesset Committee deliberating that Bill
or Reservation (hereinafter – the Committee). The Committee shall determine
the Budgetary Cost by the evaluation of the Minister of Finance, or someone
authorized by him for that purpose, unless it has been proven to its satisfaction,
by another evaluation submitted to it, that the Budgetary Cost is different from
that evaluated by the Minister of Finance. Evaluations under this Section shall
be submitted together with data and estimates.
d. In this Section •
“Budgetary Bill” – means a bill fulfilling all of the following:
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1. It was submitted not by the Government;
2. Its implementation involves a Budgetary Cost of 5,991,899 New Israeli
Shekels or more, in any budget year;
3. The Government has not given its consent to the Budgetary Cost;
• “Budgetary Reservation” – means a reservation to a bill, fulfilling all of the
following:
1. Its implementation involves a Budgetary Cost of 5,991,899 New Israeli
Shekels or more, in any budget year;
2. The Government has not given its consent to the Budgetary Cost;
• “Budgetary Cost” – means Expenditure or a commitment for Expenditure
from State Budget, or a Diminution in State Revenues, even if that
Expenditure or Diminution is accompanied by a reduction in Expenditure or
a commitment for Expenditure from State Budget, or by an increase in
State Revenues;
• “Expenditure from State Budget”, “Diminution of State Revenues” –
including expenditure from the budget of a Budgeted Body, or a diminution
in the revenues of a Budgeted Body;
• “Budgeted Body” – as defined by Article 21 of the Foundations of the
Budget Act, 5745-1985.
e. The sums specified in the definitions of “Budgetary Bill” and “Budgetary
Reservation” in subsection (d) shall be updated on the 1st of January of every
year, according to the rate of change in the consumer price index published by
the Central Bureau of Statistics.
f. The provisions of this Section shall not apply to a bill regarding the dissolution of
the Knesset and holding elections.
4. Currency notes and coins
The printing of legal tender currency notes and the minting of legal tender coins, and
the issue thereof, shall be done under Law.

5. Inspection (Amendment 3)
The State economy shall be subject to the inspection of the State Comptroller.

Basic Law: The Military (1976)

1. Defence Army of Israel
The Defence Army of Israel is the army of the State.

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2. Subordination to civil authority
a.
b.
The Army is subject to the authority of the Government.
The Minister in charge of the Army on behalf of the Government is the Minister
of Defence.
• Designation of commander in chief 3. Chief of the General Staff
a.
b.
c.
The supreme command level in the Army is the Chief of the General Staff.
The Chief of the General Staff is subject to the authority of the Government and
subordinate to the Minister of Defence.
The Chief of the General Staff shall be appointed by the Government upon the
recommendation of the Minister of Defence.
4. Duty to serve and recruitment
• Duty to serve in the military The duty of serving in the Army and recruitment for the Army shall be as prescribed
by or by virtue of Law.
5. Instructions and orders in the Army
The power to issue instructions and orders binding in the Army shall be prescribed
by or by virtue of Law.
6. Other armed forces
No armed force other than the Defence Army of Israel shall be established or
maintained except under Law.
Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel (1980)

• National capital

1. Jerusalem, Capital of Israel
Jerusalem, complete and united, is the capital of Israel.

2. Seat of the President, the Knesset, the Government and
the Supreme Court
Jerusalem is the seat of the President of the State, the Knesset, the Government and
the Supreme Court.

3. Protection of Holy Places
The Holy Places shall be protected from desecration and any other violation and
from anything likely to violate the freedom of access of the members of the different
religions to the places sacred to them or their feelings towards those places.

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4. Development of Jerusalem
• Legislative committees

a. The Government shall provide for the development and prosperity of Jerusalem
and the well-being of its inhabitants by allocating special funds, including a
special annual grant to the Municipality of Jerusalem (Capital City Grant) with
the approval of the Finance Committee of the Knesset.
b. Jerusalem shall be given special priority in the activities of the authorities of the
State so as to further its development in economic and other matters.
c. The Government shall set up a special body or special bodies for the
implementation of this section.
5. Area of the jurisdiction of Jerusalem (Amendment 1)
The jurisdiction of Jerusalem includes, as pertaining to this basic law, among others,
all of the area that is described in the appendix of the proclamation expanding the
borders of municipal Jerusalem beginning the 20th of Sivan 5727 (June 28, 1967), as
was given according to the Cities’ Ordinance.

6. Prohibition of the transfer of authority (Amendment 1)
No authority that is stipulated in the law of the State of Israel or of the Jerusalem
Municipality may be transferred either permanently or for an allotted period of time
to a foreign body, whether political, governmental or to any other similar type of
foreign body.

• Constitution amendment procedure

7. Entrenchment (Amendment 1)
Clauses 5 and 6 shall not be modified except by a Basic Law passed by a majority of
the members of the Knesset.

Basic Law: The Judiciary (1984)

Chapter One: Basic Provisions

• Structure of the courts

1. Judicial power
a. Judicial power is vested in the following courts:
1. the Supreme Court;
2. a District Court;
3. a Magistrate’s Court;
4. another court designated by Law as a court.
In this Law, “judge” means a judge of a court as aforesaid.
b. Judicial power is vested also in the following:
1. a religious court (beit din);
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2. any other court (beit din):
3. another authority all as prescribed by Law.
c. No court or court (beit din) shall be established for a particular case.
• Judicial independence

2. Independence
A person vested with judicial power shall not, in judicial matters, be subject to any
authority but that of the Law.

• Right to public trial

3. Publicity of proceedings
A court shall sit in public unless otherwise provided by Law or unless the court
otherwise directs under Law.

Chapter Two: Judges

• Supreme court selection

4. Appointment of judges
• Ordinary court selection

a. A judge shall be appointed by the President of the State upon election by a
Judges’ Election Committee.
b. The Committee shall consist of nine members, namely, the President of the
Supreme Court, two other judges of the Supreme Court elected by the body of
judges thereof, the Minister of Justice and another Minister designated by the
Government, two members of the Knesset elected by the Knesset and two
representatives of the Chamber of Advocates elected by the National Council of
the Chamber. The Minister of Justice shall be the chairman of the Committee.
c. The Committee may act even if the number of its members has decreased, so
long as it is not less than seven.
• Eligibility for supreme court judges

5. Nationality
• Eligibility for ordinary court judges

Only an Israeli national shall be appointed judge.

• Oaths to abide by constitution

6. Declaration of allegiance
A person appointed judge shall make a declaration of allegiance before the President
of the State. The declaration shall be as follows:

“I pledge myself to be in allegiance to the State of Israel and to its laws, to dispense
justice fairly, not to pervert the law and to show no favor.”.

• Supreme court term length

7. Period of tenure (Amendment 2)
The tenure of a judge shall begin upon his declaration of allegiance and shall end only

1. upon his retirement on pension; or
2. upon his resignation; or
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3. upon his being elected or appointed to one of the positions the holders of
which are debarred from being candidates for the Knesset; or
4. upon a decision of the Judges’ Election Committee prepared by the
chairman of the Committee, the Ombudsman of the Israeli Judiciary, or the
President of the Supreme Court and passed by a majority of at least seven
members; or
5. upon a decision of the Court of Discipline.
8. Retired judge
A judge who has retired on pension may be appointed to the position of a judge for
such time, in such manner and on such conditions as may be prescribed by Law.

9. Restriction on re-posting
a. A judge shall not be permanently transferred from the locality where he is
serving to a court in another locality save with the consent of the President of
the Supreme Court or pursuant to a decision of the Court of Discipline.
b. A judge shall not without his consent be appointed to an acting position at a
lower court.
10. Salary and benefits
a. The salaries of judges and other payments to be made to them during or after
their period of tenure or to their survivors after their death shall be prescribed
by Law or by a decision of the Knesset or of a Knesset committee empowered by
the Knesset in that behalf.
• Protection of judges’ salaries

b. No decision shall be passed reducing the salaries of judges only.
• Eligibility for ordinary court judges

11. Judge not to engage in additional occupation, etc
A judge shall not engage in an additional occupation, and shall not carry out any
public function save under law or with the consent of the President of the Supreme
Court and the Minister of Justice.

12. Criminal proceedings
• Attorney general

a. No criminal investigation shall be opened against a judge save with the consent
of the Attorney-General, and no indictment shall be filed against a judge save by
the Attorney-General.
b. A criminal charge against a judge shall not be tried save before a District Court
consisting of three judges, unless the judge has consented that the charge be
tried in the ordinary manner.
c. The provisions of this section shall not apply to categories of offences
designated by Law.
• Establishment of judicial council

13. Disciplinary proceedings
a. A judge shall be subject to the jurisdiction of a Court of Discipline.
b. A Court of Discipline shall consist of judges or judges retired on pension
appointed by the President of the Supreme Court.
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c. Provisions as to the grounds for instituting disciplinary proceedings, the modes
of filing complaints, the composition of the bench, the powers of the Court of
Discipline and the disciplinary measures it shall be authorized to impose shall be
prescribed by Law. The rules of procedure shall be in accordance with Law.
• Supreme/ordinary court judge removal

14. Suspension (Amendment 1)
Where a complaint is filed, criminal investigation is initiated, or indictment is filed
against a judge, the President of the Supreme Court may suspend him from office for
such period as he may prescribe.

Chapter Three: The Courts

15. Supreme Court
a. The seat of the Supreme Court is Jerusalem.
• Supreme court powers

b. The Supreme Court shall hear appeals against judgments and other decisions of
the District Courts.
• Supreme court powers

c. The Supreme Court shall sit also as a High Court of Justice. When so sitting, it
shall hear matters in which it deems it necessary to grant relief for the sake of
justice and which are not within the jurisdiction of another court (beit mishpat
or beit din).
• Supreme court powers

d. Without prejudice to the generality of the provisions of subsection (c), the
Supreme Court sitting as a High Court of Justice shall be competent 1.
to make orders for the release of persons unlawfully detained or
imprisoned.
2. to order State and local authorities and the officials and bodies thereof, and
other persons carrying out public functions under law, to do or refrain from
doing any act in the lawful exercise of their functions or, if they were
improperly elected or appointed, to refrain from acting;
3. to order courts (batei mishpat and batei din) and bodies and persons having
judicial or quasi- judicial powers under law, other than courts dealt with by
this Law and other than religious courts (batei din), to hear, refrain from
hearing, or continue hearing a particular matter or to void a proceeding
improperly taken or a decision improperly given;
• Establishment of religious courts

4. to order religious courts (batei din) to hear a particular matter within their
jurisdiction or to refrain from hearing or continue hearing a particular
matter not within their jurisdiction, provided that the court shall not
entertain an application under this paragraph if the applicant did not raise
the question of jurisdiction at the earliest opportunity; and if he had no
reasonable opportunity to raise the question of jurisdiction until a decision
had been given by a religious court (beit din), the court may quash a
proceeding taken or a decision given by the religious court (beit din)
without authority.
e. Other powers of the Supreme Court shall be prescribed by Law.
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16. Other courts
The establishment, powers, places of sitting and areas of jurisdiction of the District
Courts, the Magistrates’ Courts and other courts shall be in accordance with Law.

• Right to appeal judicial decisions

17. Appeal
A judgment of a court of first instance, other than a judgment of the Supreme Court,
shall be appealable as of right.

18. Further hearing
In a matter adjudged by the Supreme Court by a bench of three, a further hearing
may be held by a bench of five or more, on such grounds and in such manner as shall
be prescribed by Law.

19. Retrial
In a criminal matter adjudged finally, a retrial may be held on such grounds and in
such manner as shall be prescribed by Law.

20. Established rule
a. A rule laid down by a court shall guide any lower court.
• Judicial precedence

b. A rule laid down by the Supreme Court shall bind any court other than the
Supreme Court.
21. Registrar
A court may have a registrar, who may or may not be a judge.

Chapter Four: Miscellaneous Provisions

• Emergency provisions

22. Law not to be affected by emergency regulations
This Law cannot be varied, suspended, or made subject to conditions by emergency
regulations.

23. Provisions to be prescribed by Law
Provisions as to the following matters shall be prescribed by Law:

1. the manner of electing, and duration of the tenure of, the members of the
Judges’ Election Committee;
2. qualifications for the posts of judges of the various grades;
3. the manner of appointing the President of the Supreme Court, the Deputy
President of the Supreme Court and the President and Vice-president of a
District Court and a Magistrate’s Court;
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4. the conditions and procedures for terminating the tenure of a judge;
5. the manner of appointing a judge to an acting assignment at another court
and of transferring a judge, temporarily or permanently, from the locality
where he is serving to a court in another locality;
6. proceedings for the suspension of a judge from office, and review of the
suspension;
7. the matters which the courts of the different grades are to hear by a single
judge or by three or more judges;
8. the manner of designating the judge or judges who is or are to hear a
particular matter.
24. Provisions to be prescribed under Law
Provisions as to the following matters shall be prescribed under Law:

1. rules as to the administration of the courts, the making thereof and
responsibility for their implementing;
2. the rules of procedure of the Judges’ Election Committee;
3. procedure for the resignation of a judge;
4. procedure for the appointment and the powers of the registrar of a court;
5. the number of judges who are to serve in the courts of the different grades
and location.
Basic Law: The State Comptroller (1988)

1. Essence
The State Audit shall be implemented by the State Comptroller.

2. State Audit
a. The Comptroller will audit the economy, the property, the finances, the
obligations and the administration of the State, of Government Ministries, of all
enterprises, institutions, or corporations of the State, of Local Authorities, and
of bodies or other institutions which were defined by law as subject to audit by
the State Comptroller.
b. The State Comptroller shall inspect the legality, integrity, managerial norms,
efficiency and economy of the audited bodies, as well as any other matter which
he deems necessary.

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3. Duty to provide information
A body subject to State Audit will, upon request, immediately provide the State
Comptroller with information, documents, explanations, or any other material which
the Comptroller deems necessary for audit purposes.

• Ombudsman

4. Comptroller as Commissioner for Complaints
The State Comptroller will investigate complaints from the public about bodies and
persons, as provided by law: in this capacity the State Comptroller shall bear the title
‘Commissioner for Complaints from the Public’.

5. Additional tasks
The State Comptroller shall undertake additional tasks as provided by law.

6. Accountability to the Knesset
In carrying out his functions, the State Comptroller shall be accountable only to the
Knesset and not to the Cabinet.

7. Election and Term of office (Amendment 1)
a. The State Comptroller shall be chosen by the Knesset in a secret ballot; the
exact arrangements shall be set by law.
b. The term of office of the State Comptroller shall be seven years.
c. The State Comptroller will serve for one term only.
8. Qualifications (Amendment 1)
Any Israeli citizen, residing in Israel, shall be eligible to serve as State Comptroller;
any additional qualifications may be determined by law.

• Oaths to abide by constitution

9. Pledge of allegiance
The State Comptroller elected shall make and sign before the Knesset the following
declaration:

‘I pledge allegiance to the State of Israel and to its laws, and will faithfully carry out
my duties as State Comptroller’.

• Legislative committees

10. Budget
The budget of the State Comptroller’s Office shall be determined by the
Appropriations Committee of the Knesset, upon the recommendation of the State
Comptroller, and will be published together with the State Budget.

11. Salary and emoluments
The salary of the State Comptroller and other payments made to him during his term
of office or subsequently, or to his survivors upon his demise, shall be determined by
law or by a Knesset Resolution or by a duly authorized committee of the Knesset.

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12. Contact with Knesset and issuance of reports
a. The State Comptroller shall maintain contact with the Knesset, as determined
by law.
b. The State Comptroller shall issue reports and opinions within the scope of his
duties and shall publish them, subject to any restrictions determined by law.
13. Removal from office (Amendment 2)
The State Comptroller shall not be removed from office except by one of the
following:

1. Due to reasons of health he is unable, permanently, to fulfill his functions –
on the day the Knesset has resolved such by a resolution passed by a
majority of the members of the Knesset, following procedure to be
determined by law.
2. Due to conduct unbecoming his status as State Comptroller – on the day the
Knesset has resolved such by a resolution passed by a three-quarters
majority of the members of the Knesset, following procedure to be
determined by law.
14. Acting State Comptroller
If the State Comptroller is not able to fulfill his functions, an Acting Comptroller shall
be appointed, in a manner and for a period as determined by law.

Basic Law: Human Dignity and Liberty (1992)

1. Basic principles (Amendment 1)
Fundamental human rights in Israel are founded upon recognition of the value of the
human being, the sanctity of human life, and the principle that all persons are free;
these rights shall be upheld in the spirit of the principles set forth in the Declaration
of the Establishment of the State of Israel.

• Human dignity

1A. Purpose (Amendment 1)

• Motives for writing constitution

• Official religion

• Type of government envisioned The purpose of this Basic Law is to protect human dignity and liberty, in order to
establish in a Basic Law the values of the State of Israel as a Jewish and democratic
state.

• Right to life

2. Preservation of life, body and dignity
There shall be no violation of the life, body or dignity of any person as such.

• Right to own property

3. Protection of property
There shall be no violation of the property of a person.

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• Right to life

4. Protection of life, body and dignity
All persons are entitled to protection of their life, body and dignity.

5. Personal liberty
There shall be no deprivation or restriction of the liberty of a person by
imprisonment, arrest, extradition or otherwise.

• Freedom of movement

6. Leaving and entering Israel
a. All persons are free to leave Israel.
b. Every Israel national has the right of entry into Israel from abroad.
• Right to privacy

7. Privacy
a. All persons have the right to privacy and to intimacy.
• Regulation of evidence collection

b. There shall be no entry into the private premises of a person who has not
consented thereto.
• Regulation of evidence collection

c. No search shall be conducted on the private premises of a person, nor in the
body or personal effects.
d. There shall be no violation of the confidentiality of conversation, or of the
writings or records of a person.
8. Violation of rights (Amendment 1)
There shall be no violation of rights under this Basic Law except by a law befitting the
values of the State of Israel, enacted for a proper purpose, and to an extent no
greater than is required, or by regulation enacted by virtue of express authorization
in such law.

9. Reservation regarding security forces
There shall be no restriction of rights under this Basic Law held by persons serving in
the Israel Defense Forces, the Israel Police, the Prisons Service and other security
organizations of the State, nor shall such rights be subject to conditions, except by
virtue of a law, or by regulation enacted by virtue of a law, and to an extent no
greater than is required by the nature and character of the service.

10. Validity of laws
This Basic Law shall not affect the validity of any law (din) in force prior to the
commencement of the Basic Law.

11. Application
All governmental authorities are bound to respect the rights under this Basic Law.

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• Emergency provisions

12. Stability
This Basic Law cannot be varied, suspended or made subject to conditions by
emergency regulations; notwithstanding, when a state of emergency exists, by virtue
of a declaration under section 9 of the Law and Administration Ordinance,
5708-1948, emergency regulations may be enacted by virtue of said section to deny
or restrict rights under this Basic Law, provided the denial or restriction shall be for a
proper purpose and for a period and extent no greater than is required.

Basic Law: Freedom of Occupation (1994)

1. Basic principles
Fundamental human rights in Israel are founded upon recognition of the value of the
human being, the sanctity of human life, and the principle that all persons are free;
these rights shall be upheld in the spirit of the principles set forth in the Declaration
of the Establishment of the State of Israel.

• Motives for writing constitution

2. Purpose
• Official religion

The purpose of this Basic Law is to protect freedom of occupation, in order to
establish in a Basic Law the values of the State of Israel as a Jewish and democratic
state.

• Right to choose occupation

3. Freedom of occupation
Every Israel national or resident has the right to engage in any occupation,
profession or trade.

4. Violation of freedom of occupation
There shall be no violation of freedom of occupation except by a law befitting the
values of the State of Israel, enacted for a proper purpose, and to an extent no
greater than is required, or by regulation enacted by virtue of express authorization
in such law.

5. Application
All governmental authorities are bound to respect the freedom of occupation of all
Israel nationals and residents.

• Emergency provisions

6. Stability
This Basic Law shall not be varied, suspended or made subject to conditions by
emergency regulations.

• Constitution amendment procedure 7. Entrenchment

This Basic Law shall not be varied except by a Basic Law passed by a majority of the
members of the Knesset.

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8. Effect of nonconforming law (Amendment 2)
a. A provision of a law that violates freedom of occupation shall be of effect, even
though not in accordance with section 4, if it has been included in a law passed
by a majority of the members of the Knesset, which expressly states that it shall
be of effect, notwithstanding the provisions of this Basic Law; such law shall
expire four years from its commencement unless a shorter duration has been
stated therein.
b. The provision regarding the expiration of validity, mentioned in subsection (a)
shall not apply to a law adopted within one year from the date in which this Basic
Law entered into effect.

9. Repeal
Basic Law: Freedom of Occupation is hereby repealed.

10. Provisional (Amendments 1 and 2)
The provisions of any enactment which, immediately prior to this Basic Law would
have been of effect but for this Basic Law or the Basic Law repealed in section 9, shall
remain in effect until the day of 14 March 2002, unless repealed earlier; however,
such provisions shall be construed in the spirit of the provisions of this Basic Law.

11. Amendment of Basic Law: Human Dignity and Liberty
In Basic Law: Human Dignity and Liberty –

1. Section 1 shall be designated 1(a) and shall be preceded by the following
section:
“Basic principles

“1. Fundamental human rights in Israel are founded upon recognition of the
value of the human being, the sanctity of human life, and the principle that
all persons are free; these rights shall be upheld in the spirit of the
principles set forth in the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of
Israel.”

2. At the end of section 8, the following shall be added: “or by regulation
enacted by virtue of express authorization in such law.”
Basic Law: The Government (2001)

• Name/structure of executive(s) 1. What the Government is

The Government is the executive authority of the State.

2. Seat of Government
The seat of the Government is Jerusalem.

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3. Confidence of the Knesset
The Government holds office by virtue of the confidence of the Knesset.

• Legislative oversight of the executive

4. Responsibility
The Government is collectively responsible to the Knesset; each Minister is
responsible to the Prime Minister for the field of responsibility with which the
Minister has been charged.

5. Composition
• Establishment of cabinet/ministers

a. The Government is composed of a Prime Minister and other Ministers.
• Name/structure of executive(s)

• Eligibility for head of government b. The Prime Minister shall be a member of the Knesset. A Minister need not be a
member of the Knesset.

• Establishment of cabinet/ministers

c. A Minister shall be in charge of a Ministry; there may be Ministers without
Portfolio.
d. One of the Ministers who is a member of Knesset may be designated as Acting
Prime Minister.
• Deputy executive

e. A Minister may be Deputy Prime Minister.
• Eligibility for cabinet

6. Eligibility of Ministers
a. A Minister must be an Israeli citizen and a resident of Israel.
b. A person shall not be appointed Minister if he is serving in a position or role as
specified in section 7 of The Basic Law: The Knesset, unless he ceased
functioning in the said position or role upon or prior to his appointment, as
prescribed by law.
c.

• Electoral commission

1. If a person was convicted of an offense and sentenced to prison and if seven
years have not yet passed since the day he on which he finished serving his
period of punishment, or since the handing down of his sentence –
whichever was later – shall not be appointed Minister, unless the Chairman
of the Central Election Committee states that the circumstances of the
offense do not involve moral turpitude.
2. The Chairman of the Central Election Committee shall not so rule if the
court determined that the offense involved moral turpitude.
d. If a person holds a citizenship other than Israeli, and if the law of the country of
which he is a citizen allows him to be released from such citizenship, he shall be
appointed Minister only after he has taken all measures necessary to be
released from such citizenship.
e. A Knesset Member seceding from his faction and failing to tender his
resignation as a Knesset member may not be appointed as a Minister during the
period of service of that Knesset. This does not apply to the splitting of a faction
as defined by law. “Secession from a faction” is defined in section 6(a) of The
Basic Law: The Knesset.
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7. Assignment of task of forming Government
• Cabinet selection

a. When a new Government has to be constituted, the President of the State shall,
after consultation with representatives of party groups in the Knesset, assign
the task of forming a Government to a Knesset Member who has notified him
that he is prepared to accept the task; the President shall do so within seven
days of the publication of the election results, or should the need arise to form a
new government; and in the case of the death of the Prime Minister, within 14
days of his death.
b. Should this consultation take place before the new Knesset is convened, the
President will consult the representatives of the lists of candidates to be
represented in the new Knesset.
c. This section shall not apply to the formation of a Government following a no
confidence vote according to section 28 or in the event of an application to the
President under section 29(b), and the provisions specified in those sections
shall apply.
• Cabinet selection

8. Periods for formation of Government
The Knesset Member to whom the President has assigned the task of forming a
Government under section 7 shall have a period of 28 days for the fulfillment of such
task. The President of the State may extend the period by additional periods not
exceeding in the aggregate 14 days.

9. Re-assignment of task
• Cabinet selection

a. Where the periods referred to in section 8 have passed and the Knesset
Member has not notified the President of the State that he has formed a
Government, or where he has notified him before then that he is unable to form
a Government, or where he presented a Government and the Knesset rejected
his request for confidence under section 13(d), the President may assign the
task of forming a Government to another Knesset Member who has notified him
that he is prepared to accept the task, or may inform the Chairman of the
Knesset that he sees no possibility of forming a Government – all within three
days from the end of the period, or from the day of the Knesset member’s
statement that he cannot form a government, or from the rejection of
confidence in the Government, as applicable.
b. Before assigning the task of forming a Government under this section, or before
informing the Chairman of the Knesset that he sees no possibility of forming a
Government, the President may again consult with representatives of factions in
the Knesset.
• Cabinet selection

c. A Knesset Member to whom the task of forming a Government has been
assigned under this section shall have 28 days in which to do so.
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10. Assignment of task at the request of party groups
• Cabinet selection

a. Where the President of the State has informed the Chairman of the Knesset,
under section 9(a) that he sees no possibility of forming a Government, or where
he has assigned the task of forming a Government to a Knesset Member under
the same section and the Knesset Member has not notified him within 28 days
that he has formed a Government, or has notified him before then that he is
unable to form a Government, or presented a Government and the Knesset
rejected his request for confidence under section 13(d), a majority of the
members of the Knesset may request, in writing, that the President of the State
assign the task to a particular member of the Knesset, who so agreed in writing,
all within 21 days of the President’s announcement, or from the end of the
period designated in section 9(c), or from the statement by the Knesset Member
that he cannot form a Government, or from the rejection of confidence in the
Government, as relevant.
• Cabinet selection

b. Where a request as aforesaid has been submitted to the President, the
President shall assign the task of forming a Government to that Knesset
Member within two days.
• Cabinet selection

c. A Knesset Member to whom the task of forming a Government has been
assigned under this section shall have a period of fourteen days for its
fulfillment.
• Dismissal of the legislature

11. Early elections in the event of failure to form a
government
a. Should no request be submitted under section 10(a), or should a Knesset
Member fail to form a Government within the period defined in section 10(c), or
if he should prior to that time inform the President that he cannot form a
Government, the President shall so inform the Knesset Chairman.
b. Should the President so inform the Knesset Chairman, or should a Knesset
Member charged with forming a Government under section 10(a) present a
Government and fail to win the confidence of the Knesset under section 13(d),
then the Knesset shall be deemed to have decided to disperse prior to the
completion of its period of service, and elections for the Knesset will be held on
the last Tuesday before the end of 90 days of the President’s announcement, or
of the rejection of the request for confidence in the Government, as relevant.
12. Discontinuance of proceedings for formation of
Government
When a Law for the dissolution of the Knesset has been adopted, the proceedings for
the formation of a Government shall cease.

• Cabinet selection

13. Formation of Government
a. Where the President of the State has assigned to a Knesset Member the task of
forming a Government, he shall notify the Chairman of the Knesset to such
effect, and the Chairman of the Knesset shall notify the Knesset.
b. Where the Knesset Member has formed a Government, he shall notify the
President of the State and the Chairman of the Knesset to such effect, and the
Chairman of the Knesset shall notify the Knesset and set a date for the
presentation of the Government to the Knesset within seven days of such
notification.
• Head of government selection

c. The Knesset Member who has formed a Government shall head it.
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d. When a Government has been formed, it shall present itself to the Knesset, shall
announce the basic lines of its policy, its composition and the distribution of
functions among the Ministers, and shall ask for an expression of confidence.
The Government is constituted when the Knesset has expressed confidence in
it, and the Ministers shall thereupon assume office.
• Oaths to abide by constitution

14. Declaration of allegiance
As soon as, or as soon as possible after, the Knesset has expressed confidence in the
Government, the Prime Minister shall make before the Knesset the following
declaration of allegiance: “I (name) as Prime Minister undertake to uphold the State
of Israel and its laws, to faithfully fulfill my role as the Prime Minister and to comply
with the decisions of the Knesset”; and each of the other Ministers shall make the
following declaration of allegiance: “I (name) as a member of the Government,
undertake to uphold the State of Israel and its laws, to faithfully fulfill my role as a
member of the Government, and to comply with the decisions of the Knesset.”.

• Cabinet selection

15. Cooption of a Minister
The Government may, upon the proposal of the Prime Minister, coopt an additional
Minister to the Government. When the Government has decided to coopt a Minister,
it shall notify such fact and the function of the additional Minister to the Knesset.
Upon the approval of the notification by the Knesset, the additional Minister shall
assume office, and as soon as possible after the approval he shall make his
declaration of allegiance.

16. Acting Prime Minister
• Deputy executive

a. Should the Prime Minister be absent from Israel, meetings of the Government
will be convened and conducted by the designated Acting Prime Minister.
• Deputy executive

b. Should the Prime Minister be temporarily unable to discharge his duties, his
• Head of government removal

place will be filled by the Acting Prime Minister. After the passage of 100 days
upon which the Prime Minister does not resume his duties, the Prime Minister
will be deemed permanently unable to exercise his office.

c. Failing the appointment of a designated Acting Prime Minister, or should the
Acting Prime Minister be prevented from fulfilling his duties under sections (a)
and (b) above, the Government shall designate another Minister, who is a
member of the Knesset, to exercise that office.
17. Interrogation and impeachment of the Prime Minister
• Head of government immunity

a. Criminal proceedings shall not be commenced against the Prime Minister save
with the agreement of the Attorney General.
• Head of government immunity

b. Criminal proceedings shall not be commenced against someone who served as
Prime Minister on suspicion of an offense committed while in office or within a
year after serving in office, save with the consent of the Attorney General.
c. An indictment against the Prime Minister will be filed and presided over in the
Jerusalem District Court, in a presidium of three judges; proceedings regarding
an indictment filed before the Prime Minister begins his term of office shall be
prescribed by law.
d. Should the Court convict the Prime Minister of an offense, it will state in its
decision whether the offense involved moral turpitude.
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• Head of government removal

18. Removal from office pursuant to an offense
• Cabinet removal

a. Should the Prime Minister be convicted of an offense, which the court states
involves moral turpitude, the Knesset may remove him from office, pursuant to a
decision of a majority of the Knesset members. Should the Knesset so decide,
the Government shall be deemed to have resigned.
• Legislative committees

b. Within 30 days of the verdict becoming final, the House Committee of the
Knesset will render its decision regarding its recommendation pertaining to the
removal of the Prime Minister from office, and shall present its recommendation
to the Knesset plenum; should the House Committee fail to bring its
recommendation to the plenum during the prescribed period, the Chairman will
raise the issue in the Knesset plenum.
c. No decision shall be made by either the Knesset or the House Committee of the
Knesset regarding the removal of the Prime Minister from office, before the
Prime Minister has been given an opportunity to state his case before them.
• Cabinet removal

d. Should the Knesset decide not to remove the Prime Minister from office, and
should the verdict as per subsection (a) above become final, the Prime Minister
will cease to serve in office and the Government shall be deemed to have
resigned on the day the verdict becomes final.
e. The provisions of sections 42(a) and 42(b) of the Basic Law: the Knesset, shall
not apply to the Prime Minister.
• Cabinet removal

19. Resignation of Prime Minister
• Head of government removal

The Prime Minister may, after notifying the Government of his intention to do so,
resign by submitting a letter of resignation to the President of the State. The
resignation of the Prime Minister shall be deemed to be the resignation of the
Government.

• Cabinet removal

20. Death or permanent incapacity of Prime Minister
a. If the Prime Minister dies, the Government shall be deemed to have resigned on
the day of his death.
b. Should the Prime Minister be permanently incapacitated, the Government shall
be deemed to have resigned on the 101st day during which the Acting Prime
Minister served in his place.
21. Prime Minister or Acting Prime Minister ceasing to
function as members of Knesset
• Cabinet removal

a. Should the Prime Minister cease to be a Member of the Knesset, he will be
• Head of government removal

deemed to have resigned on the day his membership of the Knesset ceased. The
resignation of the Prime Minister shall be deemed to be the resignation of the
Government.

b. Should an Acting Prime Minister cease to be a Knesset Member, he shall cease
to serve as Acting Prime Minister.
• Cabinet removal

22. Termination of tenure of Minister
a. A Minister, other than the Prime Minister, may, after informing the Government
of his intention to do so, resign from the Government by submitting a letter of
resignation to the Prime Minister. His service in the Government will be
terminated upon the passage of 48 hours from the time the letter of resignation
reached the Prime Minister, unless he retracts his resignation prior to such time.
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• Cabinet removal

b. The Prime Minister may, after informing the Government of his intention to do
so, remove a Minister from his post; the removal of Minister will take effect 48
hours after the letter notifying thereof was given to the Minister, unless the
Prime Minister retracts prior to such time.
c. The tenure of a Minister in the Government ceases upon his election or
appointment to one of the function the holders of which are debarred from
being candidates for the Knesset.

23. Termination of tenure of Minister pursuant to an
offense
a. An indictment against a Minister, except for offenses to be determined by law,
will be presented and judged in a district court; procedures regarding
indictments filed before a Minister assumed tenure will be determined by law.
b. Should a Minister be convicted by the court, it shall state in its verdict whether
the offense involves moral turpitude; should the court so state, the Minister’s
tenure shall cease on the day of such verdict.
c. This section does not apply to the Prime Minister.
24. Acting Minister
a. Should a Minister, except for the Prime Minister, be absent from the country,
the Government can charge another Minister to take his place. The Acting
Minister will discharge the Minister’s duties, in all or in part, as determined by
the Government.
b. Should a Minister cease to hold office or be temporarily incapable of discharging
his duties, the Prime Minister or another Minister appointed by the Government
will discharge his duties.
c. The period of tenure of an Acting Minister under subsection (b) will not exceed
three months.
25. Deputy Ministers
a. The Minister in charge of an office, may, with the consent of the Prime Minister
and the approval of the Government, appoint one Deputy Minister for the office
from among the Knesset members. A Deputy Minister shall assume his role after
notice of his appointment has been given by the Government at the Knesset; a
Deputy Minister appointed by the Prime Minister shall be entitled “a Deputy
Minister in the Prime Minister’s office”.
b. The Deputy Minister shall act both in the Knesset and in the ministry, on behalf
of the Minister who appointed him and within the parameters allocated to him.
c. A Knesset member seceding from his faction may not be appointed to the
position of Deputy Minister during the period of service of the same Knesset.
This provision does not apply to the splitting of a faction under the conditions
prescribed by law; for the purposes of this subsection, “secession from a faction”
as defined by section 6(a) of The Basic Law: The Knesset.
26. Termination of service of a Deputy Minister
The service of a Deputy Minister will be terminated in any of the following cases:

1. The Deputy Minister resigned by submitting a letter of resignation to the
Minister who appointed him;
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2. The Minister who appointed him ceased being a Minister or being in charge
of the same office.
3. The Prime Minister, the Government or the appointing Minister decide to
terminate the service of the Deputy Minister; however, the Prime Minister
will not dismiss a Deputy Minister without first informing both the
Government and the appointing Minister of his intention to do so.
4. A new Government was formed.
5. The Deputy Minister ceased being a Knesset Member.
27. Termination of tenure of Deputy Minister pursuant to
an offense
Should a Deputy Minister be convicted by the court, it shall state in its judgment
whether the offense involves moral turpitude; should the court so state, the Deputy
Minister’s tenure shall cease on the day of the judgment.

28. Expression of no confidence in the Government
• Cabinet removal

a. The Knesset may adopt an expression of no confidence in the Government.
• Head of government removal
• Cabinet removal b. An expression of no confidence in the Government will be by a resolution

• Head of government removal

adopted by the majority of the Members of the Knesset to request that the
President of the State assign the task of forming a Government to a certain
Knesset Member who gave his written consent thereto.

• Cabinet removal

c. If the Knesset has expressed no confidence in the Government, the Government
• Head of government removal

shall be deemed to have resigned on the day of the expression of no confidence.
The President will, within two days, charge the Knesset Member so named with
the task of forming a Government.

• Dismissal of the legislature

d. A Knesset Member to whom the task of forming a Government has been
assigned by the President of the State under this section shall have a period of
28 days for its fulfillment. The President may extend the period by additional
periods not in the aggregate exceeding 14 days.
• Dismissal of the legislature

e. Where the periods referred to in subsection (d) have passed and the Knesset
Member has not notified the President of the State that he has formed a
Government, or where he has notified him before then that he is unable to form
a Government, the President will so notify the Chairman of the Knesset.
• Dismissal of the legislature

f. If the President of the State so informed the Chairman of the Knesset as per
subsection (e), or where the Knesset Member to whom the task of forming a
Government has been assigned under this section presented a Government and
the Knesset rejected his request for confidence under section 13(d), it will be
deemed to be a Knesset resolution to disperse prior to the completion of its
period of service, and elections to the Knesset will be held on the last Tuesday
before the end of 90 days of the President’s announcement, or of the rejection
of the request for confidence in the Government, as relevant.
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• Dismissal of the legislature

29. Authority to disperse the Knesset
a. Should the Prime Minister ascertain that a majority of the Knesset opposes the
Government, and that the effective functioning of the Government is prevented
as a result, he may, with the approval of the President of the State, disperse the
Knesset by way of an order to be published in Reshumot. The order will enter
into effect 21 days after its publication, unless a request is submitted under
subsection (c), and the Government will be deemed to have resigned on the day
of the order’s publication.
b. Within 21 days of the publication of the order, a majority of the Knesset
Members may request in writing from the President of the State to assign the
task of forming a Government to a certain Knesset Member who gave his
written consent thereto, and who is not the Prime Minister.
c. Where a request as aforesaid in subsection (b) has been submitted to the
President of the State, the President shall inform the Chairman of the Knesset.
The President shall assign the task of forming a Government to the Knesset
Member named in the request within two days.
d. The Knesset Member to whom the task of forming a Government has been
assigned under this section shall have a period of 28 days for its fulfillment. The
President of the State may extend the period by additional periods not in the
aggregate exceeding 14 days.
e. Where no such request was submitted under subsection (b), or where the
periods referred to in subsection (d) have passed and the Knesset Member has
not notified the President of the State that he has formed a Government, or
where he has notified him before then that he is unable to form a Government,
the President will so notify the Chairman of the Knesset.
f. If the President of the State gave notice under subsection (e) or if the Knesset
member presented a Government and the Knesset rejected the request that it
express confidence in it under section 13(d), then the Knesset is deemed to have
decided to disperse before the end of its term of office, and elections to the
Knesset will be held on the last Tuesday before the end of 90 days of the day of
the order’s entry into effect, or of the day the periods to form a Government has
passed, or of the day of the announcement to the President, or of the day of the
rejection of the request for confidence in the government, as relevant.
g. The Prime Minister may not exercise his authority according to this section 1.
From the beginning of the period of service of the incoming Knesset and
until the establishment of the new Government;
2. After the Knesset has expressed no confidence in the Government under
section 28;
3. After the resignation of the Prime Minister, or from the day on which a
verdict was given stating he has committed an offense carrying moral
turpitude and until the Knesset plenum renders its decision in the matter in
accordance with the provisions of section 18(a).
h. An Acting Prime Minister shall not be entitled to exercise the authority of the
Prime Minister under this section.
30. Continuity of Government
a. When a new Knesset has been elected or the Government has resigned under
sections 18, 19, 20, 21, 28 or 29, or if a request is submitted under section 29(b),
the President of the State shall begin proceedings for the formation of a new
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Government, as laid out in this Basic Law.

b. When a new Knesset has been elected or the Government has resigned under
sections 18, 19, 20, 21 28 or 29, the outgoing Government shall continue to
carry out its functions until the new Government is constituted.
• Head of government replacement

c. A Prime Minister who has resigned shall continue to carry out his functions
pending the constitution of the new Government. If the Prime Minister has died,
or is permanently incapacitated from carrying out his duties, or if his tenure was
ended because of an offense, the Government shall designate another of the
Ministers who is a Member of the Knesset and of the Prime Minister’s faction to
be Interim Prime Minister pending the constitution of the new Government.
d. A Government that serves under subsection (b) may appoint a Knesset Member
as a Minister in place of a Minister who has ceased to serve; the appointment of
a Minister under this subsection does not require the approval of the Knesset.
31. Functioning of the Government
a. The Government may, with the approval of the Knesset, change the division of
roles among the Ministers, with the exception of the role of the Prime Minister.
b. The Government may, with the approval of the Knesset, transfer authorities and
duties legally belonging to one Minister, in all or in part, to another Minister.
c. The Government may, with the approval of the Knesset, unite or divide
Government ministries, abolish or establish new ministries.
d. The Government may transfer areas of actions from one ministry to another.
e. The Government may establish permanent or temporary Ministerial
committees, or for particular matters; after the appointment of a committee the
Government may conduct its operations through it.
f. The Government will set work, meetings and debate procedures, and
decision-making processes in the Government, whether permanent or for a
specific matter.
• Powers of cabinet

32. Residual powers of Government
The Government is authorized to perform in the name of the State, and subject to
any law, all actions which are not legally incumbent on another authority.

33. Delegation of powers
a. Powers granted by law (din) to the Government may be delegated to one of the
Ministers; this does not apply to powers granted in accordance with this Basic
Law, except for powers under section 32.
b. Powers granted to a Minister by law, or transferred to him under the provisions
of section 31(b), with the exclusion of the authority to make regulations, may be
delegated by the Minister, either totally or partially or subject to conditions, to a
civil servant.
c. Powers delegated by the Government to a Minister, with the exception of the
power to make regulations, may be delegated by the Minister, either totally or
partially or subject to conditions, to a civil servant, provided that the
Government empowered him to do so.
d. For the purposes of this section, the power granted to the Government or a
Minister also refers to duties incumbent upon them.
e. The provisions of this section will apply provided no other intention is evidenced
by the law conferring the power or imposing the obligation.
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34. Assumption of powers
A Minister charged with the implementation of a law, may assume any power, with
the exception of powers of a judicial nature, granted by the same law to a civil
servant, provided that no other intention is evidenced by the law; the Minister may
do the above for a particular matter or for a specific period.

35. Secrecy
a. The debates and decisions of the Government and those of the Ministerial
committees regarding the following matters are secret and their disclosure and
publication is prohibited:
1. State security;
2. Foreign relations of the State;
3. Matters regarding which the Government deems secrecy to be essential to
the State, and a notification thereof having been declared in an order, for
the purposes of this section;
4. A matter that the Government has decided to keep secret; the disclosure
and publication of such matters is forbidden only to persons who were
aware of the decision.
b. The provisions of subsection (a) shall not apply to matters regarding which the
Government or the Prime Minister, or such persons that the Government or the
Prime Minister have so specifically authorized, have permitted their publication,
or to matters the publication of which is legally mandatory.
36. Salaries and pensions
The salaries of the Ministers and the Deputy Ministers and other payments paid to
them during their period of service or thereafter, or to their next of kin after their
deaths, will be specified by law, or by virtue of a decision of the Knesset or of a
Knesset committee appointed by the Knesset for that purpose.

37. Regulations
a. The Minister charged with the implementation of a law, is empowered to make
regulations for its implementation.
b. A law may empower the Prime Minister or a Minister to make regulations in a
matter decided by the empowerment.
• Emergency provisions

38. Declaration of a state of emergency
a. Should the Knesset ascertain that the State is in a state of emergency, it may, of
its own initiative or pursuant to a Government proposal, declare that a state of
emergency exists.
b. The declaration will remain in force for the period prescribed therein, but may
not exceed one year; the Knesset may make a renewed declaration of a state of
emergency as stated.
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c. Should the Government ascertain that a state of emergency exists in the State,
and that its urgency necessitates the declaration of a state of emergency even
before it becomes possible to convene the Knesset, it may declare a state of
emergency. The declaration’s validity shall expire upon 7 days from its
proclamation, if not previously approved or revoked by the Knesset pursuant to
a decision by a majority of its members; should the Knesset fail to convene, the
Government may make a renewed declaration of a state of emergency as stated
in this subsection.
d. The Knesset and Governmental declarations of a state of emergency will be
published in Reshumot; should publication in Reshumot not be possible, another
appropriate manner of publication will be adopted, provided that notification
thereof be published in Reshumot at the earliest possible date.
e. The Knesset may at all times revoke the declaration of the state of emergency;
notification of its revocation will be published in Reshumot.
• Emergency provisions

39. State of emergency
a. During a state of emergency the Government may make emergency regulations
for the defense of the State, public security and the maintenance of essential
services and supplies; emergency regulations will be submitted to the Foreign
Affairs and Security Committee at the earliest possible date after their
enactment.
b. Should the Prime Minister deem it impossible to convene the Government, and
that there exists an immediate and critical need to make emergency regulations,
he may make such regulations or empower a Minister to make them.
c. Emergency regulations may alter any law, temporarily suspend its effect or
introduce conditions, and may also impose or increase taxes or other
compulsory payments, unless there is another provision by law.
• Human dignity

d. Emergency regulations may not prevent recourse to legal action, or prescribe
retroactive punishment, or allow infringement upon human dignity.
e. Emergency regulations shall not be enacted, nor shall arrangements, measures
and powers be implemented in their wake, except to the extent warranted by
the state of emergency.
f. The force of emergency regulations shall expire three months after the day of
their enactment, unless their force is extended by law, or they are revoked by
the Knesset by law or pursuant to a decision of a majority of the Members of
Knesset.
g. Emergency regulations shall come into force on the day of their publication in
Reshumot; should publication in Reshumot not be possible another appropriate
means of publication will be adopted provided that they be published in
Reshumot at the earliest possible date.
h. Should the state of emergency cease to exist, the regulations enacted will
remain in force for the duration of the prescribed period, however not longer
than for 60 days after the termination of the state of emergency; state of
emergency regulations whose force was lengthened by law shall remain in force.
40. Declaration of war
• Power to declare/approve war

a. The state may only begin a war pursuant to a Government decision.
b. Nothing in the provisions of this section will prevent the adoption of military
actions necessary for the defense of the state and public security.
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c. Notification of a Government decision to begin a war under the provision of
subsection (a) will be submitted to the Knesset Foreign Affairs and Security
Committee as soon as possible; the Prime Minister also will give notice to the
Knesset plenum as soon as possible; notification regarding military actions as
stated in subsection (b) will be given to the Knesset Foreign Affairs and Security
Committee as soon as possible.
• Emergency provisions

41. Inapplicability of emergency laws
Notwithstanding the provisions of any law, emergency regulations cannot change
this Basic Law, temporarily suspend it, or make it subject to conditions.

• Legislative committees 42. The Government and Knesset committees

• Legislative oversight of the executive

a. The Government will provide the Knesset and its committees with information
upon request and will assist them in the discharging of their roles; special
provisions will be prescribed by law for the classification of information when
the same is required for the protection of state security and foreign relations or
international trade connections or the protection of a legally mandated
privilege.
• Legislative oversight of the executive

b. The Knesset may, at the request of at least forty of its members, conduct a
session with the participation of the Prime Minister, pertaining to a topic
decided upon; requests as stated may be submitted no more than once a month.
• Legislative oversight of the executive

c. The Knesset may obligate a Minister to appear before it, similar authority is
granted to any of the Knesset committees within the framework of their tasks.
d. Any of the Knesset committees may within the framework of the discharging of
their tasks, and under the auspices of the relevant Minister or with his
knowledge, require a civil servant or any other person prescribed in the law, to
appear before them.
e. Any Minister may speak before the Knesset and its committees.
f. Details regarding the implementation of this section may be prescribed by law
or in the Knesset Rules.
• Scheduling of elections

43. Change in election date
When a the date for elections to the Knesset has been set under sections 11, 28, and
29, the Knesset may – by a resolution passed by a majority of its members adopted
within five days after grounds for holding the elections arose – decide that because of
the proximity of the date of elections to a holiday, festival day or memorial day, the
elections will be postponed to a date no later than 100 days after the day on which
such grounds arose.

• Constitution amendment procedure 44. Permanence of the Law

a. This Basic Law can only be changed by a majority of the Knesset Members; the
majority under this subsection will be required for decisions of the Knesset
plenum in the first, second and third readings; for purposes of this subsection,
“change” is either explicit or by implication.
b. The provisions of this subsection will not apply to sections 45 and 46.
45. Amendment of Basic Law: The Knesset – No. 30
In the Basic Law: The Knesset

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1. The following will be added after section 21:
“21A. Knesset supervision of secondary legislation

“(c) Regulations enacted by a Minister whose violation entails criminal
punishment shall not enter into force, unless they have been approved
prior to publication by a committees of the Knesset committees responsible
for that matter; should the committee fail to approve or reject the
regulations within 45 days of receiving the regulations, the regulations will
be deemed approved.

“(d) The provisions of this subsection do not prejudice the provisions of any
Basic Law or other law regarding regulations.”

2. Section 35 shall conclude “not later than five months from the adoption of
the law.”
3. The following will be added after section 36:
“36A. Dispersion due to failure to adopt budget

“(c) Non-adoption of the Budget Law within three months subsequent to
the beginning of the fiscal year will be considered to be a Knesset decision
on its dispersion, prior to the completion of its term of service, on the day
following the end of this period (hereafter: the determining date), and early
elections will be held on the last Tuesday before the end of 90 days of the
determining date, unless the Knesset decides by a majority vote of its
members, within five days of the determining date, that because of the
proximity of the date of elections to a holiday, festival day or memorial day,
to postpone the elections to a date no later than 100 days from the
determining date.

“(d) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a), should the President
of the State begin procedures to form a new Government under section 30
of The Basic Law: The Government, or should a law be adopted to disperse
the Knesset, or should elections to the Knesset be held, after the date for
submission of the Draft Budget under section 3 of The Basic Law: The State
Economy and before the passage of three months from the beginning of the
fiscal year, the determining day under subsection (a), shall be “three months
from the beginning of the fiscal year or 45 days from the constitution of the
Government, whichever is later.”

46. Repeal of The Basic Law: The Government
The Basic Law: The Government (1992) is repealed.

47. Effect and applicability
a. The provisions of this Basic Law shall apply to elections and to formation of the
Government, beginning with elections to the 16th Knesset.
b. Subject to the provisions of subsection (a), this Law shall go into effect on the
day the Government is formed as said in subsection (a).
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c. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (b), section 44 shall go into effect
on the day on which this Law is published.
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Topic index

A

Attorney general . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18, 32

B

Budget bills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17, 26, 27

C

Cabinet removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45, 46, 47Cabinet selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42, 43, 44
Claim of universal suffrage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Compensation of legislators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17Constitution amendment procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19, 27, 30, 39, 52

D

Deputy executive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41, 44
Designation of commander in chief . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Dismissal of the legislature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16, 17, 43, 47, 48
Duty to serve in the military . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

E

Electoral commission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 11, 41
Eligibility for cabinet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Eligibility for first chamber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 10, 11, 13
Eligibility for head of government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41Eligibility for head of state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20, 23
Eligibility for ordinary court judges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31, 32
Eligibility for supreme court judges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31Emergency provisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19, 25, 34, 39, 50, 51, 52
Establishment of cabinet/ministers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15, 41
Establishment of judicial council . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32Establishment of religious courts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

F

First chamber selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9Foreign affairs representative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Freedom of movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

H

Head of government immunity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Head of government removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44, 45, 47
Head of government replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49Head of government selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Head of state immunity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

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Head of state powers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22Head of state removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23, 24
Head of state replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Head of state selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20, 21
Head of state term length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20Head of state term limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Human dignity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37, 51

I

Immunity of legislators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

J

Judicial independence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Judicial precedence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

L

Leader of first chamber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13, 14
Legislative committees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14, 15, 23, 24, 26, 27, 30, 36, 45, 52
Legislative oversight of the executive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15, 41, 52Length of legislative sessions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

M

Minimum age for first chamber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9Motives for writing constitution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37, 39

N

Name/structure of executive(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20, 40, 41
National capital . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

O

Oaths to abide by constitution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21, 31, 36, 44
Official religion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37, 39
Ombudsman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36Ordinary court selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Outside professions of legislators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

P

Power to declare/approve war . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Power to pardon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Powers of cabinet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49Protection of judges’ salaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Public or private sessions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Publication of deliberations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

Q

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Quorum for legislative sessions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

R

Regulation of evidence collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Removal of individual legislators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Replacement of legislators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Right to appeal judicial decisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34Right to choose occupation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Right to life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37, 38
Right to own property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Right to privacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38Right to public trial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

S

Scheduling of elections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12, 20, 52
Secret ballot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9Size of first chamber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Standing committees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14Structure of legislative chamber(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Structure of the courts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Supreme court powers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11, 33Supreme court selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Supreme court term length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Supreme/ordinary court judge removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

T

Term length for first chamber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12, 17
Terrorism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11Type of government envisioned . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Israel 1958 (rev. 2013)Page 57

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