From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Temporal range: MiddleLate Pleistocene 0.250–0.040 Ma

Homo sapiens neanderthalensis.jpg
The Neanderthal skull of La Chapelle-aux-Saints 1
An approximate reconstruction of a Neanderthal skeleton. (The central ribcage, including the sternum, and parts of the pelvis are from modern humans.)
Scientific classificatione
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Suborder: Haplorhini
Infraorder: Simiiformes
Family: Hominidae
Genus: Homo
Species: H. neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens
Binomial name
Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens
King, 1864
Range of NeanderthalsAColoured.png
Known Neanderthal range in Europe (blue), Southwest Asia (orange), Uzbekistan (green), and the Altai mountains (violet).
Homo mousteriensis[1]
Palaeoanthropus neanderthalensis[2]

Neanderthals (UK: /niˈændərˌtɑːl/, also US: /n-, –ˈɑːn-, –ˌtɔːl, –ˌθɔːl/),[3][4] more rarely known as Neandertals,[a] were archaic humans that became extinct about 40,000 years ago.[8][9][10][11][12][13] They seem to have appeared in Europe and later expanded into Southwest, Central and Northern Asia. There, they left hundreds of stone tool assemblages. Almost all of those younger than 160,000 years are of the so-called Mousterian techno-complex, which is characterised by tools made out of stone flakes.[14]

Neanderthals are considered either a distinct species, Homo neanderthalensis,[15][16][17] or more rarely[18] a subspecies of Homo sapiens (H. s. neanderthalensis).[19][20] A 2010 report found that non-Africans have up to 2% of Neanderthal DNA and that Neanderthal DNA is 99.7% identical to modern day human DNA.[21] Another report in 2017 concluded that 1.8 to 2.6 percent of the genes of non-Africans come from Neanderthals.[22] Compared to modern humans, Neanderthals were stockier, with shorter legs and a bigger body. In conformance with Bergmann’s rule, this likely was an adaptation to preserve heat in cold climates. Male and female Neanderthals had cranial capacities averaging 1,600 cm3 (98 cu in) and 1,300 cm3 (79 cu in), respectively,[23][24]extending to 1,736 cm3 (105.9 cu in) in the male Amud 1.[25] This is within range of anatomically modern humans, whose cranial capacity range from 1,230 to 1,880 cm3 (75 to 115 cu in).[26] Males stood 164 to 168 cm (65 to 66 in) and females 152 to 156 cm (60 to 61 in) tall.[27]

The Neanderthal genome project revealed in 2010 that, through interbreeding, Neanderthals may have contributed to the DNA of modern humans, likely between 50,000 and 60,000 years ago.[28][29][30][31] Today, this is apparent in the genome of most people living outside sub-Saharan Africa, as well as in some sub-Saharan Africans. Subsequent studies suggested there may have been three episodes of interbreeding. The first would have occurred soon after modern humans left Africa. The second would have occurred after the ancestral Melanesians had branched off—these people seem to have thereafter bred with Denisovans. The third would have involved Neanderthals and the ancestors of East Asians only.[32][33][34]


Neanderthals are named after one of the first sites where their fossils were discovered in the 19th century in the Neandertal in Erkrath, Germany.[b] Thal is an older spelling of the German word Tal (with the same pronunciation), which means “valley” (cognate with English dale).[c][36][37]

Neanderthal 1 was known as the “Neanderthal cranium” or “Neanderthal skull” in anthropological literature, and the individual reconstructed on the basis of the skull was occasionally called “the Neanderthal man”.[38] The binomial name Homo neanderthalensis—extending the name “Neanderthal man” from the individual type specimen to the entire group—was first proposed by the Anglo-Irish geologist William King in 1864, although that same year King changed his mind and thought that the Neanderthal fossil was distinct enough from humans to warrant a separate genus.[6] Nevertheless, King’s name had priority over the proposal put forward in 1866 by Ernst HaeckelHomo stupidus.[36] The practice of referring to “the Neanderthals” and “a Neanderthal” emerged in the popular literature of the 1920s.[39] The German pronunciation of Neandertaler is [neˈandɐˌtʰaːlɐ] in the International Phonetic Alphabet. In British English, “Neanderthal” is pronounced with the /t/ as in German, but different vowels (IPA: /niːˈændərtɑːl/).[40][41][42] In layman’s American English, “Neanderthal” is pronounced with a /θ/ (the voiceless th as in thin) and /ɔ/ instead of the longer British /aː/ (IPA: /niːˈændərθɔːl/),[43] although scientists typically use the /t/ as in German.[44][45]


Anatomical comparison of skulls of Homo sapiens(left) and Homo neanderthalensis (right)
(in Cleveland Museum of Natural History)
Features compared are the braincase shape, foreheadbrowridgenasal boneprojectioncheek bone angulationchin and occipital contour

Scientists still dispute whether Neanderthals should be classified as a distinct species – Homo neanderthalensis – or as Homo sapiens neanderthalensis, placing Neanderthals as a subspecies of H. sapiens.[46][47] DNA researcher Svante Pääbo referred to the ongoing “taxonomic wars” over whether Neanderthals were a separate species or subspecies as the type of debate that cannot be resolved, “since there is no definition of species perfectly describing the case.”[48]

During the early 20th century, the prevailing view was heavily influenced by Arthur Keith and Marcellin Boule, who wrote the first scientific description of a nearly complete Neanderthal skeleton.[49] Senior members of their respective national paleontological institutes and among the most eminent paleoanthropologists of their time,[50][51] both men argued that the primitive traits of this skeleton meant it could not be a direct ancestor of Homo sapiens. This idea was reflected in Boule (1912)’s reconstruction of the Chapelle-aux-Saints 1 Neanderthal, now believed inaccurate, in which the skeleton was mounted in a crooked pose with bowed legs.[52]

During the 1930s, scholars Ernst MayrGeorge Gaylord Simpson and Theodosius Dobzhansky reinterpreted the existing fossil record and came to different conclusions.[53] Neanderthal man was classified as Homo sapiens neanderthalensis – an early subspecies contrasted with what was now called Homo sapiens sapiens. The unbroken succession of fossil sites of both groups in Europe was considered evidence of a slow, gradual evolutionary transition from Neanderthals to modern humans. Contextual interpretations of similar excavation sites in Asia lead to the hypothesis of multiregional origin of modern man in the 1980s.[54]


Early pre-Neanderthal
(stage 1, 450 ka, male)
(stage 2, 350 ka, male)
Early Neanderthal
(stage 3, 130 ka, female)
Classic Neanderthal
(stage 4, male, 50 ka)
The evolution of Neanderthals according to the accretion model. Note the larger nose and rounder eyes of the Classic Neanderthal.

Both Neanderthals and living humans are thought to have evolved from Homo erectus. In the earliest known migration wave into Eurasia dated to 1.81 million years ago (Ma), Homo erectus left Africa most probably via the Levant and reached Georgia (fossils of Dmanisi). Hominins had reached China by 1.7 Ma[55] and Iberia (Spain) by 1.4 Ma.[56] The discoverers of fragmented bones in Spain (Iberia) dated to 1.2 million years, assigned to a new species Homo antecessor, argue these are the remains of the ancestors of Neanderthals and of the older species Homo heidelbergensis, an interpretation rejected by most anthropologists.[57]

A large number of molecular clock genetic studies place the divergence time of the Neanderthal and modern human lineages between 800,000 and 400,000 years ago.[58][35][59][60][61][62][63][64][65] For this reason, most scholars believe Neanderthals descend, via Homo heidelbergensis, from another Homo erectus migration out of Africa that would have occurred in this time frame. Parts of the Homo erectus population that stayed in Africa would have evolved, perhaps through the intermediate Homo rhodesiensis, into early anatomically modern humans by 200,000 years ago or earlier.

Neanderthal traits are present in Homo heidelbergensis specimens beginning between 600,000 and 350,000 years ago.[66][67][68][69] As of 1998, there is a fossil gap in Europe between 300 and 243 ka (MIS 8); no hominin has ever been dated to this period.[70] Conventionally, therefore, European hominins younger than 243,000 years old are called Neanderthals.[70][71]

The quality of the fossil record greatly increases from 130,000 years ago onwards.[72] Specimens younger than this date make up the bulk of known Neanderthal skeletons and were the first whose anatomy was comprehensively studied. They are known as typical or Classic Neanderthals.[73][74] In morphological studies, the latter term may also be used in a narrower sense for Neanderthals younger than 71,000 years old (MIS 4 and 3).[70]


Neanderthal fossils were first discovered in 1829 in the Engis caves (the partial skull dubbed Engis 2), in what is now Belgium by Philippe-Charles Schmerling and the Gibraltar 1 skull in 1848 in the Forbes’ QuarryGibraltar, both prior to the type specimen discovery in a limestone quarry (Feldhofer Cave), located in the Düssel River’s Neandertal in Erkrath, Germany (about 12 km (7 mi) east of Düsseldorf), in August 1856, three years before Charles Darwin‘s On the Origin of Species was published.[75][76][77]

The type specimen, dubbed Neanderthal 1, consisted of a skull cap, two femora, three bones of the right arm, two of the left arm, parts of the left ilium, fragments of a scapula, and ribs. The workers who recovered the objects originally thought them to be the remains of a cave bear. However, they eventually gave the material to amateur naturalist Johann Carl Fuhlrott, who turned the fossils over to anatomist Hermann Schaaffhausen.

To date, the bones of over 400 Neanderthals have been found.[78]

Timeline of research[edit]

Engis 2, child (1829)
Gibraltar 1, female (1848)
Neanderthal 1, male (upper skull 1856, left-cheek 2000)
Spy 2 skull, sex unclear[79] (1886)
Krapina 3, female (1899)
  • 1829: A damaged skull of a Neanderthal child, Engis 2, is discovered in Engis, Netherlands (now Belgium).
  • 1848: A female Neanderthal skull, Gibraltar 1, is found in Forbes’ Quarry, Gibraltar, but its importance is not recognised.
  • 1856: Limestone miners discover the Neanderthal-type specimen, Neanderthal 1, in Neandertal, western Prussia (now Germany).
  • 1864: William King is the first to recognise Neanderthal 1 as belonging to a separate species, for which he gives the scientific name Homo neanderthalensis. He then changed his mind on placing it in the genus Homo, arguing that the upper skull was different enough to warrant a separate genus since, to him, it had likely been “incapable of moral and theistic conceptions.”[6]
  • 1880: The mandible of a Neanderthal child is discovered in a secure context in Šipka cave, in the Austro-Hungarian Empire (now the Czech Republic), associated with cultural debris, including hearths, Mousterian tools, and bones of extinct animals.
  • 1886: Two well-preserved Neanderthal skeletons are found at Spy, Belgium, making the hypothesis that Neanderthal 1 was only a diseased modern human difficult to sustain.[80]
  • 1899: Sand excavation workers find hundreds of fragmentary Neanderthal remains representing at least 12 and likely as much as 70 individuals on a hill in Krapina, in the Austro-Hungarian Empire (now Croatia).
  • 1908: A very well preserved Neanderthal, La Chapelle-aux-Saints 1, is found in its eponymous site in France,[81] said by the excavators to be a burial, a claim still heatedly contested.[82][83][84] For historical reasons it remains the most famous Neanderthal skeleton.[72]:15
  • 1912: Marcellin Boule publishes his now discredited influential study of Neanderthal skeletal morphology based on La Chapelle-aux-Saints 1.
  • 1953–1957: Ten Neanderthal skeletons are excavated in Shanidar Cave, Iraqi Kurdistan, by Ralph Solecki and colleagues.
  • 1975: Erik Trinkaus‘s study of Neanderthal feet strongly argues that Neanderthals walked like modern humans.
  • 1981: The site of BontnewyddWales yielded an early Neanderthal tooth, the most north-western Neanderthal remain ever.
  • 1987: Israeli Neanderthal Kebara 2 is dated (by TL and ESR) to 60,000 BP, thus later than the Israeli anatomically modern humans dated to 90,000 and 80,000 BP at Qafzeh and Skhul.
  • 1994: The site of Sidrón Cave, Spain, is discovered where the remains of 12 males and females were to be found. Mitochondrial DNA studies would show that the adult males were genetically related, but the adult females were not, suggesting female exogamy.[85][86]
  • 1997: Matthias Krings et al. are the first to amplify Neanderthal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) using a specimen from Feldhofer grotto in the Neander valley.[35]
  • 1997–2000: A small part of the skull of Neanderthal 1, the Neanderthal type fossil discovered in 1856, is found in a dump of limestone mining debris near the original discovery site.[87]
  • 1998: The body of a c. 24,000-year-old early Upper Paleolithic child is discovered at Abrigo do Lagar Velho, Portugal, and is described as presenting a mosaic of anatomically modern human and more archaic features, reminiscent of Neanderthals.[47]
  • 2005: The Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology and associated institutions launch the Neanderthal genome project to sequence the Neanderthal nuclear genome.[88]
  • 2010: 1–4% of the DNA of living non-African humans are found by the Max Planck Institute to likely come from Neanderthals,[29][89] a result confirmed in 2012,[90][91] and refined to 1.5–2.1% in 2014.[58]
  • 2013: In the midst of a hundred-year-old debate over the existence of Neanderthal deliberate burials, a team of French researchers reasserted a heavily contested 1908 claim that the Chapelle-aux-Saints 1 skeleton was deliberately buried.[92]
  • 2014: Some researchers express worry that almost all theories for the Neanderthals’ extinction assume that there is something modern humans had that Neanderthals did not.[93]
  • 2014: The most comprehensive dating ever of Neanderthal bones and tools from hundreds of sites in Europe is carried out. It suggested that European Neanderthals died out between 41,000 and 39,000 years ago, which coincides with the start of a very cold period in Europe and is no more than 5,000 years after anatomically-modern Homo sapiens reached the continent.[13][94]

Habitat and range[edit]

Sites where typical Neanderthal fossils have been found

Early Neanderthals, living before the Eemian interglacial (130 ka), are poorly known and come mostly from European sites. From 130 ka onwards, the quality of the fossil record increases dramatically. From then on, Neanderthal remains are found in Western, Central, Eastern, and Mediterranean Europe,[95] as well as Southwest, Central, and Northern Asia up to the Altai Mountains in Siberia. No Neanderthal has ever been found outside Western Eurasia, namely neither to the south of Jerusalem (Shuqba), nor further east than Kazakhstan (Denisova, Russia), nor to the north of Wales (Bontnewydd),[96][97] although it is difficult to assess the limits of their northern range because glacial advances destroy most human remains, the Bontnewydd tooth being exceptional. Middle Palaeolithic artifacts have been found up to 60° N on the Russian plains.[98]

There likely never were more than 70,000 Neanderthals at any given time.[99]


Neanderthal cranial anatomy.jpg

Neanderthal anatomy differed from modern humans in that they had a more robust build and distinctive morphological features, especially on the cranium, which gradually accumulated more derived aspects as it was described by Marcellin Boule,[100] particularly in certain isolated geographic regions. These include shorter limb proportions, a wider, barrel-shaped rib cage, a reduced chin, and a large nose, being at the modern human higher end in both width and length,[d] and started somewhat higher on the face than in modern humans.[71] Evidence suggests they were much stronger than modern humans, with particularly strong arms and hands,[101][102] while they were comparable in height; based on 45 long bones from at most 14 males and 7 females, Neanderthal males averaged 164 to 168 cm (65 to 66 in) and females 152 to 156 cm (60 to 61 in) tall.[27] Samples of 26 specimens in 2010 found an average weight of 77.6 kg (171 lb) for males and 66.4 kg (146 lb) for females.[103] A 2007 genetic study suggested some Neanderthals may have had red hair and blond hair, along with a light skin tone.[104]

Gregory Cochran and Henry Harpending, in the book The 10,000 Year Explosion, investigated whether it is accurate to depict Neanderthals as having hair patterns similar to anatomically modern humans. They concluded that, “We don’t yet know for sure, but it seems likely that, as part of their adaptation to cold, Neanderthals were furry. Chimpanzees have ridges on their finger bones that stem from the way that they clutch their mothers’ fur as infants. Modern humans don’t have these ridges, but Neanderthals do.”[105]

In 2017, researchers using 3D reconstructions of nasal cavities and Computational Fluid Dynamics techniques have found that Neanderthals and modern humans both adapted their noses (independently and in a convergent way) to help breathe in cold and dry conditions.[106]  The large nose seen in Neanderthals, as well as Homo heidelbergensis, affected the shape of the skull and the muscle attachments, and gave them a weaker bite force than in modern humans.[107]

In The Spread of Modern Humans in Europe (2002) John F. Hoffecker, writes “Neanderthal sites show no evidence of tools for making tailored clothing. There are only hide scrapers, which might have been used to make blankets or ponchos. This is in contrast to Upper Paleolithic (modern human) sites, which have an abundance of eyed bone needles and bone awls. Moreover, microwear analysis of Neanderthal hide scrapers shows that they were used only for the initial phases of hide preparation, and not for the more advanced phases of clothing production.[108]

A 2013 study of Neanderthal skulls suggests that their eyesight may have been better than that of modern humans, owing to larger eye sockets and larger areas of the brain devoted to vision.[109]

Neanderthals are known for their large cranial capacity, which at 1,600 cm3 (98 cu in) is larger on average than that of modern humans. One study has found that drainage of the dural venous sinuses (low pressure blood vessels that run between the meninges and skull leading down through the skull) in the occipital lobe region of Neanderthal brains appears more asymmetric than other hominid brains.[110] In 2008, a group of scientists produced a study using three-dimensional computer-assisted reconstructions of Neanderthal infants based on fossils found in Russia and Syria. It indicated that Neanderthal and modern human brains were the same size at birth, but that by adulthood, the Neanderthal brain was larger than the modern human brain.[111] They had almost the same degree of encephalisation (i.e. brain-to-body-size ratio) as modern humans.[112][113]

The Neanderthal skeleton suggests they consumed 100 to 350 kcal (420 to 1,460 kJ) more per day than male modern humans of 68.5 kg (151 lb) and females of 59.2 kg (131 lb).[103]


Levallois point – BeuzevilleFrance

Neanderthals made stone tools,[114] used fire,[115] and were hunters. The consensus on their behaviour ends there. It had actually long been debated whether Neanderthals were hunters or scavengers,[71] but the discovery of the pre-Neanderthal Schöningen wooden spears in Germany helped settle the debate in favour of hunting. Most available evidence suggests they were apex predators,[116][117] and fed on red deerreindeeribexwild boaraurochs and on occasion mammothstraight-tusked elephant and rhinoceros.[71][118][119][120] They appear to have occasionally used vegetables as fall-back food,[117][121] revealed in the 2000s and 2010s by isotope analysis of their teeth and study of their coprolites (fossilised faeces).[119][122] Dental analysis of specimens from Spy, Belgium and El Sidrón, Spain[123] in 2017 suggested that these Neanderthals had a wide-ranging diet, and that those “from El Sidrón showed no evidence of meat eating” at all and seemed to have lived on “a mixture of forest moss, pine nuts and a mushroom known as split gill”.[124]

The size and distribution of Neanderthal sites, along with genetic evidence, suggests Neanderthals lived in much smaller and more sparsely distributed groups than anatomically-modern Homo sapiens.[125][126] The bones of twelve Neanderthals were discovered at El Sidrón cave in northwestern Spain. They are believed to have been a group killed and butchered about 50,000 years ago. Analysis of the mtDNA showed that the three adult males belonged to the same maternal lineage, while the three adult females belonged to different ones. This suggests a social structure where males remained in the same social group and females “married out”.[127]

The bones of the El Sidrón group show signs of defleshing, suggesting that they were victims of cannibalism.[127] The St. Césaire 1 skeleton discovered in 1979 at La Roche à Pierrot, France, showed a healed fracture on top of the skull apparently caused by a deep blade wound, suggesting interpersonal violence.[128]

Claims that Neanderthals deliberately buried their dead, and if they did, whether such burials had any symbolic meaning,[72]:158–60 are heavily contested.[83][84][129] The debate on deliberate Neanderthal burials has been active since the 1908 discovery of the well-preserved Chapelle-aux-Saints 1 skeleton in a small hole in a cave in southwestern France. In this controversy’s most recent installment, a team of French researchers reinvestigated the Chapelle-aux-Saints cave and in January 2014 reasserted the century-old claim that the 1908 Neanderthal specimen had been deliberately buried,[92] and this has in turn been heavily criticised.[82]

Question of art and adornment[edit]

Whether Neandethals created art and used adornments, which would indicate a capability for complex symbolic thought, remains unresolved. A 2010 paper on radiocarbon dates cast doubt on the association of Châtelperronian beads with Neanderthals,[130] and Paul Mellars considered the evidence for symbolic behavior to have been refuted.[131] This conclusion, however, is controversial, and others such as Jean-Jacques Hublin and colleagues have re-dated material associated with the Châtelperronian artefacts[132] and used proteomic evidence to restate the challenged association with Neanderthals.[133]

A very large number of other claims of Neanderthal art, adornment, and structures have been made. These are often taken by the media as showing Neanderthals were capable of symbolic thought,[134][135] or were “mental equals” to anatomically modern humans.[136][137] As evidence of symbolism, none of them are widely accepted,[138]although the same is true for Middle Palaeolithic anatomically modern humans. Among many others:

  • Flower pollen on the body of pre-Neanderthal Shanidar 4, Iraq, had in 1975 been argued to be a flower burial.[139] Once popular, this theory is no longer accepted.[140][141]
  • Pigmented shells from Murcia, Spain, were argued in 2009 to be Neanderthal make-up containers.[142]
  • Bird bones were argued to show evidence for feather plucking in a 2012 study examining 1,699 ancient sites across Eurasia, which the authors controversially[143] took to mean Neanderthals wore bird feathers as personal adornments.[144]
  • Deep scratches were found in 2012 on a cave floor underlying Neanderthal layer in Gorham’s Cave, Gibraltar, which some have controversially[145] interpreted as art.[146]
  • Two 176,000-year-old stalagmite ring structures, several metres wide, were reported in 2016 more than 300 metres from the entrance within Bruniquel Cave, France. The authors claim artificial lighting would have been required as this part of the cave is beyond the reach of daylight and that the structures had been made by early Neanderthals, the only humans in Europe at this time.[147]
  • In 2015, a study argued that a number of 130,000-year-old eagle talons found in a cache near Krapina, Croatia along with Neanderthal bones, had been modified to be used as jewellery.[148][149]

All of these appeared only in single locations. Yet in 2018, using uranium-thorium dating methods,[150] red painted symbols comprising a scalariform (ladder shape), a negative hand stencil, and red lines and dots on the cave walls of three Spanish caves 700 km (430 mi) apart were dated to at least 64,000 years old.[151] If the dating is correct, they were painted before the time anatomically modern humans are thought to have arrived in Europe. Paleoanthropologist John D. Hawks argues these findings demonstrate Neanderthals were capable of symbolic behavior previously thought to be unique to modern humans.[152]



Early investigations concentrated on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which, owing to strictly matrilineal inheritance and subsequent vulnerability to genetic drift, is of limited value in evaluating the possibility of interbreeding of Neanderthals with Cro-Magnon people.

In 1997, geneticists were able to extract a short sequence of DNA from Neanderthal bones.[153] The extraction of mtDNA from a second specimen was reported in 2000, and showed no sign of modern human descent from Neanderthals.[61]

In July 2006, the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology and 454 Life Sciences announced that they would sequence the Neanderthal genome over the next two years. This genome was expected to be roughly the size of the human genome, three-billion base pairs, and share most of its genes. It was hoped the comparison would expand understanding of Neanderthals, as well as the evolution of humans and human brains.[154]

Svante Pääbo has tested more than 70 Neanderthal specimens. The Neanderthal genome is almost the same size as the human genome and is identical to ours to a level of 99.7% by comparing the accurate order of the nitrogenous bases in the double nucleotide chain.[155] From mtDNA analysis estimates, the two shared a common ancestor about 500,000 years ago. An article[88] appearing in the journal Nature has calculated they diverged about 516,000 years ago, whereas fossil records show a time of about 400,000 years ago.[156] A 2007 study pushes the point of divergence back to around 800,000 years ago.[157]

Edward Rubin of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory states recent genome testing of Neanderthals suggests human and Neanderthal DNA are some 99.5% to nearly 99.9% identical.[158][159]

Geneticists first sequenced the entire genome of a Neanderthal in 2013 by extracting it from the phalanx bone of a 50,000-year-old Siberian Neanderthal.[160][161][58]

Interbreeding with modern humans[edit]

On November 16, 2006, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory issued a press release suggesting Neanderthals and ancient humans probably did not interbreed.[162]Edward M. Rubin, director of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Joint Genome Institute (JGI), sequenced a fraction (0.00002) of genomic nuclear DNA (nDNA) from a 38,000-year-old Vindia Neanderthal femur. They calculated the common ancestor to be about 353,000 years ago, and a complete separation of the ancestors of the groups about 188,000 years ago.[163]

Their results show the genomes of modern humans and Neanderthals are at least 99.5% identical, but despite this genetic similarity, and despite the two groups having coexisted in the same geographic region for thousands of years, Rubin and his team did not find any evidence of any significant interbreeding between the two. Rubin said, “While unable to definitively conclude that interbreeding between the two species of humans did not occur, analysis of the nuclear DNA from the Neanderthal suggests the low likelihood of it having occurred at any appreciable level.”[163]

In 2008 Richard E. Green et al. from Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, published the full sequence of Neanderthal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and suggested “Neanderthals had a long-term effective population size smaller than that of modern humans.”[62] In the same publication, it was disclosed by Svante Pääbo that in the previous work at the Max Planck Institute, “Contamination was indeed an issue,” and they eventually realised that 11% of their sample was modern human DNA.[164][165] Since then, more of the preparation work has been done in clean areas and 4-base pair ‘tags’ have been added to the DNA as soon as it is extracted so the Neanderthal DNA can be identified.

Geneticist at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropologyextracting ancient DNA

With 3 billion nucleotides sequenced, analysis of about ⅓ showed no sign of admixture between modern humans and Neanderthals, according to Pääbo. This concurred with the work of Noonan from two years earlier. The variant of microcephalin common outside Africa, which was suggested to be of Neanderthal origin and responsible for rapid brain growth in humans, was not found in Neanderthals. Nor was the MAPT variant, a very old variant found primarily in Europeans.[164]

However, an analysis of a first draft of the Neanderthal genome by the same team released in May 2010 indicates interbreeding may have occurred.[29][89] “Those of us who live outside Africa carry a little Neanderthal DNA in us,” said Pääbo, who led the study. “The proportion of Neanderthal-inherited genetic material is about 1 to 4 percent [later refined to 1.5 to 2.1 percent].[58] It is a small but very real proportion of ancestry in non-Africans today,” says Dr. David Reich of Harvard Medical School, who worked on the study. This research compared the genome of the Neanderthals to five modern humans from China, France, sub-Saharan Africa, and Papua New Guinea.[89]

This indicates a gene flow from Neanderthals to modern humans, i.e., interbreeding between the two populations. Since the three non-African genomes show a similar proportion of Neanderthal sequences, the interbreeding must have occurred early in the migration of modern humans out of Africa, perhaps in the Middle East. No evidence for gene flow in the direction from modern humans to Neanderthals was found. Gene flow from modern humans to Neanderthals would not be expected if contact occurred between a small colonising population of modern humans and a much larger resident population of Neanderthals. A very limited amount of interbreeding could explain the findings, if it occurred early enough in the colonisation process.[89]

It is suggested that 20 percent of Neanderthal DNA survived in modern humans, notably expressed in the skin, hair and diseases of modern people.[166][167][unreliable source?] Modern human genes involved in making keratin—the protein found in skin, hair, and nails—have specially high levels of Neanderthal DNA.[167] For example, around 66% of East Asians contain the Neanderthal skin gene, while 70% of Europeans possess the Neanderthal gene which affects skin colour. POU2F3 is found in around 66 percent of East Asians, while the Neanderthal version of BNC2, which affects skin color, among other traits, is found in 70 percent of Europeans. Neanderthal are the variants in genes that affect the risk of several diseases, including lupusbiliary cirrhosisCrohn’s disease, and type 2 diabetes. Eight percent of Neanderthal DNA comes from an unknown group of archaic humans, tantalising hints of unknown groups from Asia and Africa that left genes in Denisovans and modern humans, respectively.[167][166] The genetic variant of the MC1R gene linked to red hair in Neanderthals has not been found in modern humans; hence, red hair may be an example of convergent evolution.[168][169][104]

While interbreeding is viewed as the most parsimonious interpretation of the genetic discoveries, the authors point out they cannot conclusively rule out an alternative scenario, in which the source population of non-African modern humans was already more closely related to Neanderthals than other Africans were, because of ancient genetic divisions within Africa.[89] Other studies carried out since the sequencing of the Neanderthal genome have cast doubt on the level of admixture between Neanderthals and modern humans, or even as to whether the groups interbred at all. One study has asserted that the presence of Neanderthal or other archaic human genetic markers can be attributed to shared ancestral traits between the lineages originating from a 500,000-year-old common ancestor.[170][171][172][173]

Among the genes shown to differ between present-day humans and Neanderthals were RPTNSPAG17CAN15TTF1FOXP2 and PCD16.[89]

Specifically, a visualisation map of the reference modern-human containing the genome regions with high degree of similarity or with novelty according to a Neanderthal of 50k[58] has been built by Pratas et al.[174]

More recent research suggests that Neanderthal–Homo sapiens sapiens interbreeding appears to have occurred asymmetrically among the ancestors of modern-day humans, and that this is a possible rationale for differing frequencies of Neanderthal-specific DNA in the genomes of modern humans. In 2015, researchers Benjamin Vernot and Joshua Akey at the University of Washington conclude in a paper in the American Journal of Human Genetics that the relatively greater quantity of Neanderthal-specific DNA in the genomes of individuals of East Asian descent (than those of European descent) cannot be explained by differences in selection.[175] They further suggest that “two additional demographic models, involving either a second pulse of Neandertal gene flow into the ancestors of East Asians or a dilution of Neandertal lineages in Europeans by admixture with an unknown ancestral population” are parsimonious with their data.[175] Similar conclusions were reached in a paper published in the same publication by researchers Bernard Kim and Kirk Lohmueller at UCLA: “Using simulations of a broad range of models of selection and demography, we have shown that this hypothesis [that the greater proportion of Neandertal ancestry in East Asians than in Europeans is due to the fact that purifying selection is less effective at removing weakly deleterious Neandertal alleles from East Asian populations] cannot account for the higher proportion of Neandertal ancestry in East Asians than in Europeans. Instead, more complex demographic scenarios, most likely involving multiple pulses of Neandertal admixture, are required to explain the data.”[176]

In a subsequent interview, Dr. Lohmueller did note that these findings go against the commonly-held perception that Neanderthals were mostly localised to modern-day Europe and western Asia: “It’s very hard to put these findings into spatial context. The key idea is that there would have to have been some additional interbreeding events involving East Asians, but not Europeans. These interbreeding events could have been directly between Neanderthals and East Asians, maybe in some other indirect way.”[177][better source needed] Vernot also noted that “[H]umans have been constantly migrating throughout their history—this makes it hard to say exactly where interactions with Neanderthals occurred. It’s possible, for example, that all of the interbreeding with Neanderthals occurred in the Middle East, before the ancestors of modern non-Africans spread out across Eurasia. In the model from the paper, the ancestors of all non-Africans interbred with Neanderthals, and then split up into multiple groups that would later become Europeans, East Asians. Shortly after they split up, the ancestors of East Asians interbred with Neanderthals just a little bit more.”[177][better source needed]

Studies published in March 2016 suggest that modern humans bred with hominins, including Neanderthals, on multiple occasions.[178] Another study in April 2016 found differences between modern human and Neanderthal Y chromosomes that, they postulated, could cause female Homo sapiens sapiens to miscarry male babies that had Neanderthal fathers.[179] This could explain why no modern man had to date been found with a Neanderthal Y chromosome.[180] Melanesians and Australoid populations show evidence of only one interbreeding event, possibly about 100,000 years ago, occurring in the Middle East, Europeans show a second event, which may also be of Middle Eastern origin, occurring possibly 50,000 years ago, while East Asians show an additional third interbreeding event possibly 30,000 years ago occurring in Siberia. Evidence that Neanderthal genomic material is often found amongst genes of the immune system suggests that some of the interbreeding may have secured resistance to diseases that Neanderthal populations had bred resistance to.[178]

In 2016 researchers reported that they had found Human DNA in the genome of a female Neanderthal from the Altai mountains region near the border between Mongolia and Russia. They calculated that the mating must have taken place about 100,000 years ago.[181]


In April 2014, a first glimpse into the epigenetics of the Neanderthal was obtained with the publication of the full DNA methylation of the Neanderthal and the Denisovan.[178][182] The reconstructed DNA methylation map allowed researchers to assess gene activity levels throughout the Neanderthal genome and compare them to modern humans. One of the major findings focused on the limb morphology of Neanderthals. Gokhman et al. found that changes in the activity levels of the HOX cluster of genes were behind many of the morphological differences between Neanderthals and modern humans, including shorter limbs, curved bones and more.[182]


According to a 2014 study by Thomas Higham and colleagues of organic samples from European sites, Neanderthals died out in Europe between 41,000 and 39,000 years ago.[e] New dating in Iberia, where Neanderthal dates as late as 28,000 years had been reported, suggests evidence of Neanderthal survival in the peninsula after 42,000 years ago is almost non-existent.[11]

Anatomically modern humans arrived in Mediterranean Europe between 45,000 and 43,000 years ago, so the two different human populations shared Europe for several thousand years.[8][183] The exact nature of biological and cultural interaction between Neanderthals and other human groups is contested.[184]

Possible scenarios for the extinction of the Neanderthals are:

  1. Neanderthals were a separate species from modern humans, and became extinct (because of climate change or interaction with modern humans) and were replaced by modern humans moving into their habitat between 45,000 and 40,000 years ago.[185] Jared Diamond has suggested a scenario of violent conflict and displacement.[186]
  2. Neanderthals were a contemporary subspecies that bred with modern humans and disappeared through absorption (interbreeding theory).
  3. Volcanic catastrophe: see Campanian Ignimbrite Eruption

mtDNA-based simulation of modern human expansion in Europe starting 1,600 generations ago. Neanderthal range in light grey[187]

Climate change[edit]

About 55,000 years ago, the climate began to fluctuate wildly from extreme cold conditions to mild cold and back in a matter of decades. Neanderthal bodies were well-suited for survival in a cold climate—their stocky chests and limbs stored body heat better than the Cro-Magnons. Neanderthals died out in Europe between 41,000 and 39,000 years ago, apparently coinciding with the start of a very cold period.[13][188] Raw material sourcing and the examination of faunal remains by Adler et al. (2006) in the southern Caucasus suggest that modern humans may have had a survival advantage during this period, being able to use social networks to acquire resources from a greater area. They found that in both the Late Middle Palaeolithic and Early Upper Palaeolithic more than 95% of stone artifacts were drawn from local material, suggesting Neanderthals restricted themselves to more local sources.[189]

Coexistence with modern humans[edit]

Approximate reconstruction of a Neanderthal skeleton and artistic interpretation of the La Ferrassie 1Neanderthal man from the National Museum of Nature and Science

In November 2011 tests conducted at the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit in England on what were previously thought to be Neanderthal baby teeth, which had been unearthed in 1964 from the Grotta del Cavallo in Italy, were identified as the oldest modern human remains discovered anywhere in Europe, dating from between 43,000 and 45,000 years ago.[190] Given that the 2014 study by Thomas Higham of Neanderthal bones and tools indicates that Neanderthals died out in Europe between 41,000 and 39,000 years ago, the two different human populations shared Europe for as long as 5,000 years.[13] Nonetheless, the exact nature of biological and cultural interaction between Neanderthals and other human groups has been contested.[184]

Modern humans co-existed with them in Europe starting around 45,000 years ago and perhaps even earlier. Neanderthals inhabited that continent long before the arrival of modern humans. These modern humans may have introduced a disease that contributed to the extinction of Neanderthals, and that may be added to other recent explanations for their extinction. When Neanderthal ancestors left Africa roughly 100,000 years earlier they adapted to the pathogens in their European environment, unlike modern humans who adapted to African pathogens. This transcontinental movement is known as the Out of Africa model. If contact between humans and Neanderthals occurred in Europe and Asia the first contact may have been devastating to the Neanderthal population, because they would have had little if any immunity to the African pathogens. More recent historical events in Eurasia and the Americas show a similar pattern, where the unintentional introduction of viral or bacterial pathogens to unprepared populations has led to mass mortality and local population extinction.[191] The most well-known example of this is the arrival of Christopher Columbus to the New World, which brought and introduced foreign diseases when he and his crew arrived to a native population who had no immunity.

Anthropologist Pat Shipman, of Pennsylvania State University, suggested that domestication of the dog could have played a role in Neanderthals’ extinction.[192]

Interbreeding hypotheses[edit]

Chris Stringer‘s hypothesis of the family tree of genus Homo, published 2012 in Nature – the horizontal axis represents geographic location, and the vertical axis represents time in millions of years ago.[f]

An alternative to extinction is that Neanderthals were absorbed into the Cro-Magnon population by interbreeding. This would be counter to strict versions of the recent African origin theory, since it would imply that at least part of the genome of Europeans would descend from Neanderthals.

Pre-2010 interbreeding hypotheses[edit]

Until the early 1950s, most scholars believed Neanderthals were not in the ancestry of living humans.[194]:232–234[195]Nevertheless, Thomas H. Huxley in 1904 saw among Frisians the presence of what he believed to be Neanderthaloid skeletal and cranial characteristics as an evolutionary development from Neanderthal rather than as a result of interbreeding, saying that “the blond long-heads may exhibit one of the lines of evolution of the men of the Neanderthaloid type,” yet he raised the possibility that the Frisians alternatively “may be the result of the admixture of the blond long-heads with Neanderthal men,” thus separating “blond” from “Neanderthaloid.”[196]

Hans Peder Steensby proposed interbreeding in 1907 in the article Race studies in Denmark. He strongly emphasised that all living humans are of mixed origins.[197] He held that this would best fit observations, and challenged the widespread idea that Neanderthals were ape-like or inferior. Basing his argument primarily on cranial data, he noted that the Danes, like the Frisians and the Dutch, exhibit some Neanderthaloid characteristics, and felt it was reasonable to “assume something was inherited” and that Neanderthals “are among our ancestors.”

Carleton Stevens Coon in 1962 found it likely, based upon evidence from cranial data and material culture, that Neanderthal and Upper Paleolithic peoples either interbred or that the newcomers reworked Neanderthal implements “into their own kind of tools.”[198] Christopher Thomas Cairney in 1989 went further, laying out a rationale for hybridisation and adding a broader discussion of physical characteristics as well as commentary on interbreeding and its importance to adaptive European phenotypes. Cairney specifically discussed the “intermixture of racial elements” and “hybridisation.”[199]

By the early 2000s, the majority of scholars supported the Out of Africa hypothesis,[200][201] according to which anatomically modern humans left Africa about 50,000 years ago and replaced Neanderthals with little or no interbreeding. Yet some scholars still argued for hybridisation with Neanderthals. The most vocal proponent of the hybridisation hypothesis was Erik Trinkaus of Washington University.[202] Trinkaus claimed various fossils as products of hybridised populations, including the child of Lagar Velho, a skeleton found at Lagar Velho in Portugal[203][204][205] and the Peștera Muierii in Romania.[206]

Interbreeding hypotheses since 2010[edit]

In 2010, geneticists announced that interbreeding had likely taken place,[89][207] a result confirmed in 2012.[90][91][208][page needed] The genomes of all non-Africans include portions that are of Neanderthal origin,[209][210] a share estimated in 2014 to 1.5–2.1%.[58] This DNA is absent in Sub-Saharan Africans (Yoruba people and Sansubjects).[89] Ötzi the iceman, Europe’s oldest preserved mummy, was found to possess an even higher percentage of Neanderthal ancestry.[211] The two percent of Neanderthal DNA in Europeans and Asians is not the same in all Europeans and Asians: In all, approximately 20% of the Neanderthal genome appears to survive in the modern human gene pool.[212]

2012 genetic studies seem to suggest that modern humans may have mated with “at least two groups” of archaic humans: Neanderthals and Denisovans.[213] Some researchers suggest admixture of 3.4–7.9% in modern humans of non-African ancestry, rejecting the hypothesis of ancestral population structure.[214] Detractors have argued and continue to argue that the signal of Neanderthal interbreeding may be due to ancient African substructure, meaning that the similarity is only a remnant of a common ancestor of both Neanderthals and modern humans and not the result of interbreeding.[172][215] John D. Hawks has argued that the genetic similarity to Neanderthals may indeed be the result of both structure and interbreeding, as opposed to just one or the other.[216]

While some modern human nuclear DNA has been linked to the extinct Neanderthals, no mitochondrial DNA of Neanderthal origin has been detected,[35] which in primates is always maternally transmitted. This observation has prompted the hypothesis that whereas female humans interbreeding with male Neanderthals were able to generate fertile offspring, the progeny of female Neanderthals who mated with male humans were either rare, absent or sterile.[217]


Notable European Neanderthals[edit]

La Ferrassie 1, skull cast
Le Moustier 1 in 1909
Le Moustier 1 in 2011
Shanidar 1, skull cast

Remains of more than 300 European Neanderthals have been found. For the most important, see List of human evolution fossils.

  • Neanderthal 1: The first human bones recognised as showing a non-modern anatomy. Discovered in 1856 in a limestone quarry at the Feldhofer grotto in Neanderthal, Germany, they consist of a skull cap, the two femora, the three right arm bones, two left arm bones, the ilium, and fragments of a scapula and ribs.
  • La Chapelle-aux-Saints 1: Called the Old Man, a fossilised skull discovered in La Chapelle-aux-Saints, France, by A. and J. Bouyssonie, and L. Bardon in 1908. Characteristics include a low vaulted cranium and large browridge typical of Neanderthals. Estimated to be about 60,000 years old, the specimen was severely arthritic and had lost all his teeth long before death, leading some to suggest he was cared for by others.
  • La Ferrassie 1: A fossilised skull discovered in La Ferrassie, France, by R. Capitan in 1909. It is estimated to be 70,000 years old. Its characteristics include a large occipital bun, low-vaulted cranium and heavily worn teeth.
  • Le Moustier 1: One of the rare nearly complete Neanderthal skeletons to be discovered, it was excavated by a German team in 1908, at Peyzac-le-Moustier, France. Sold to a Berlin museum, the post cranial skeleton was bombed and mostly destroyed in 1945, and parts of the mid face were lost sometime after then. The skull, estimated to be less than 45,000 years old, includes a large nasal cavity and a less developed brow ridge and occipital bun than seen in other Neanderthals. The Mousterian tool techno-complex is named after its discovery site.

Notable Southwest Asian Neanderthals[edit]

Remains of more than 70 Southwest Asian Neanderthals have been found. For a complete list see List of Southwest Asian Neanderthals.

  • Shanidar 1 to 10: Eight Neanderthals and two pre-Neanderthals (Shanidar 2 and 4) were discovered in the Zagros Mountains in Iraqi Kurdistan. One of the skeletons, Shanidar 4, was once thought to have been buried with flowers, a theory no longer accepted. To Paul B. Pettitt the “deliberate placement of flowers has now been convincingly eliminated”, since “[a] recent examination of the microfauna from the strata into which the grave was cut suggests that the pollen was deposited by the burrowing rodent Meriones tersicus, which is common in the Shanidar microfauna and whose burrowing activity can be observed today”.[218]
  • Amud 1: A male adult Neanderthal, dated to roughly 55,000 BP, and one of several found in a cave at Nahal AmudIsrael. At 178 cm (70 in), it is the tallest known Neanderthal. It also has the largest cranial capacity of all extinct hominins: 1,736 cm3.[71][219]
  • Kebara 2: A male adult post-cranial skeleton, dated to roughly 60,000 BP, that was discovered in 1983 in Kebara Cave, Israel. It has been studied extensively, for its hyoid, ribcage, and pelvis are much better preserved than in all other Neanderthal specimens.

Notable Central Asian Neanderthal[edit]

  • Teshik-Tash 1: An 8–11 year old skeleton discovered in Uzbekistan by Okladnikov in 1938. This is the only fairly complete skeleton discovered to the east of Iraq. Okladnikov claimed it was a deliberate burial, but this is debated.


This section describes bones with Neanderthal traits in chronological order.

Mixed with H. heidelbergensis traits[edit]

H. neanderthalensis fossils[edit]

H. s. sapiens with traits reminiscent of Neanderthals[edit]

In popular culture[edit]

Neanderthals have been portrayed in popular culture including appearances in literature, visual media and comedy. Early 20th century artistic interpretations often presented Neanderthals as beastly creatures, emphasising hairiness and rough, dark complexion.[227]

See also[edit]


  1. Jump up^ The common species name Neanderthal is on occasion written Neandertal, even in scientific publications, under the somewhat mistaken assumption that this common name is taken directly from the German and that it might hence have to follow spelling reforms of that language. (In German Thal, meaning valley, is written Tal since 1901.) In reality, the common species name Neanderthal comes from the binomial scientific name[5] established by King in 1864, Homo neanderthalensis.[6] The binomial name is indeed taken from German but because binomial names are normally unalterable, the binomial still reflects the pre-1901 German spelling and hence so does, for most authors, the common name. The Neandertal region in Germany is in English written without an h. Note that in German the common species name is almost always Neandertaler (lit. “of the valley of Neander”) not Neandertal, but in the few instances where the word Neandertal is used to refer not to the place but to the prehistoric humans, as is the case of the Neanderthal Museum, the h is kept for the same reason as in English that it reflects the scientific name.[7]
  2. Jump up^ The valley is named after Joachim Neander, whose Greek-style last name had been changed by his grandfather from “Neumann” (“new man”).[35]
  3. Jump up^ Some words beginning with th in older varieties of German were the result of a spelling embellishment that had no connection to English th. (Teil, meaning ‘part,’ was sometimes spelled Theil in the 18th and 19th centuries.) Tal became standardized with the German spelling reform of 1901, thus the German name Neandertal for both the valley and species/subspecies.
  4. Jump up^ There are modern humans with noses as wide as those of Neanderthals and modern humans with similar nose lengths, but none with both Neanderthal nose width and nose length.
  5. Jump up^ Higham et al did not study samples from sites outside Europe and they stated that further work was required to rule out later survival at Gorhams Cave, Gibraltar.[8]
  6. Jump up^ Homo floresiensis originated in an unknown location from unknown ancestors and reached remote parts of IndonesiaHomo erectus spread from Africa to western Asia, then east Asia and Indonesia; its presence in Europe is uncertain, but it gave rise to Homo antecessor, found in SpainHomo heidelbergensis originated from Homo erectus in an unknown location and dispersed across Africa, southern Asia and southern Europe (other scientists interpret fossils, here named heidelbergensis, as late erectus). Homo sapiens sapiensspread from Africa to western Asia and then to Europe and southern Asia, eventually reaching Australia and the Americas. In addition to Neanderthals and Denisovans, a third gene flow of archaic Africa origin is indicated at the right.[193]

Further reading[edit]


  1. Jump up^ Romeo, Luigi (1979). Ecce Homo!:A Lexicon of Man. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 92. ISBN 9027220069.
  2. Jump up^ Camp, C. L; Allison, H. J.; Nichols, R. H. (1964). Bibliography of Fossil Vertebrates 1954–1958. New York: The Geological Society of America, Inc. p. 556. ISBN 9780813710921.
  3. Jump up^ “Neanderthal in ODE”Oxford Dictionaries.
  4. Jump up^ “”Neanderthal” in Random House Dictionary (US) & Collins Dictionary (UK)”
  5. Jump up^ “Neanderthal”. Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Human Evolution. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell. 2013.
  6. Jump up to:a b c King, William (Jan 1864). “The Reputed Fossil Man of the Neanderthal”(PDF). The Quarterly Journal of Science1: 96.
  7. Jump up^ “Neandertal oder Neanderthal? – Was ist denn nun richtig?” Neanderthal museum. Retrieved February 1, 2017Heute sollten Ortsbezeichnungen das „Neandertal“ ohne „h“ bezeichnen. Alle Namen, die sich auf den prähistorischen Menschen beziehen, führen das „h“. [Today one should write for place names “Neandertal” without an “h”. All names related to the prehistoric humans keep the “h”.]
  8. Jump up to:a b c T. Higham, K. Douka, R. Wood, C.B. Ramsey, F. Brock, L. Basell, M. Camps, A. Arrizabalaga, J. Baena, C. Barroso-Ruíz, C. Bergman, C. Boitard, P. Boscato, M. Caparrós, N.J. Conard, C. Draily, A. Froment, B. Galván, P. Gambassini, A. Garcia-Moreno, S. Grimaldi, P. Haesaerts, B. Holt, M.-J. Iriarte-Chiapusso, A. Jelinek, J.F. Jordá Pardo, J.-M. Maíllo-Fernández, A. Marom, J. Maroto, M. Menéndez, L. Metz, E. Morin, A. Moroni, F. Negrino, E. Panagopoulou, M. Peresani, S. Pirson, M. de la Rasilla, J. Riel-Salvatore, A. Ronchitelli, D. Santamaria, P. Semal, L. Slimak, J. Soler, N. Soler, A. Villaluenga, R. Pinhasi, R. Jacobi (2014). “The timing and spatiotemporal patterning of Neanderthal disappearance”Nature512 (7514): 306–09. Bibcode:2014Natur.512..306Hdoi:10.1038/nature13621PMID 25143113We show that the Mousterian [the Neanderthal tool-making tradition] ended by 41,030–39,260 calibrated years BP (at 95.4% probability) across Europe. We also demonstrate that succeeding ‘transitional’ archaeological industries, one of which has been linked with Neanderthals (Châtelperronian), end at a similar time.
  9. Jump up^ T. Higham (2011). “European Middle and Upper Palaeolithic radiocarbon dates are often older than they look: problems with previous dates and some remedies”(PDF). Antiquity85 (327): 235–49. doi:10.1017/s0003598x00067570Few events of European prehistory are more important than the transition from ancient to modern humans around 40 000 years ago, a period that unfortunately lies near the limit of radiocarbon dating. This paper shows that as many as 70 per cent of the oldest radiocarbon dates in the literature may be too young, due to contamination by modern carbon.
  10. Jump up to:a b R. Pinhasi, T.F.G. Higham, L.V. Golovanova, V.B. Doronichev (2011). “Revised age of late Neanderthal occupation and the end of the Middle Paleolithic in the northern Caucasus”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA108(21): 8611–16. Bibcode:2011PNAS..108.8611Pdoi:10.1073/pnas.1018938108The direct date of the fossil (39,700 ± 1,100 14C BP) is in good agreement with the probability distribution function, indicating at a high level of probability that Neanderthals did not survive at Mezmaiskaya Cave after 39 ka cal BP. […] This challenges previous claims for late Neanderthal survival in the northern Caucasus. […] Our results confirm the lack of reliably dated Neanderthal fossils younger than ≈40 ka cal BP in any other region of Western Eurasia, including the Caucasus.
  11. Jump up to:a b B. Galván, C.M. Hernández, C. Mallol, N. Mercier, A. Sistiaga, V. Soler (2014). “New evidence of early Neanderthal disappearance in the Iberian Peninsula” (PDF). Journal of Human Evolution75: 16–27. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2014.06.002PMID 25016565.
  12. Jump up^ McKie, Robin (June 2, 2013). “Why did the Neanderthals die out?”The Guardian. Retrieved April 6, 2017“It was once thought we appeared in Europe around 35,000 years ago and that we coexisted with Neanderthals for thousands of years after that. They may have hung on in pockets – including caves in Gibraltar – until 28,000 years ago [said Chris Stringer]” Previous research on Neanderthal sites which suggested that they were more recent than 40,000 years old appears to be wrong,” said Stringer. “That is a key finding that will be discussed at the conference.”[…] However, scientists have set out to get round these problems. At Oxford University, scientists led by Tom Higham have developed new methods to remove contamination and have been able to make much more precise radiocarbon dating for this period.
  13. Jump up to:a b c d “New dates rewrite Neanderthal story”BBC News.
  14. Jump up^ Shaw, Ian; Jameson, Robert, eds. (1999). A Dictionary of Archaeology. Blackwell. p. 408. ISBN 0-631-17423-0. Retrieved August 1, 2016.
  15. Jump up^ Hublin, J. J. (2009). “The origin of Neandertals”Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences106 (38): 16022–27. Bibcode:2009PNAS..10616022Hdoi:10.1073/pnas.0904119106JSTOR 40485013PMC 2752594Freely accessiblePMID 19805257.
  16. Jump up^ Harvati, K.; Frost, S.R.; McNulty, K.P. (2004). “Neanderthal taxonomy reconsidered: implications of 3D primate models of intra- and interspecific differences”Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A101 (5): 1147–52. Bibcode:2004PNAS..101.1147Hdoi:10.1073/pnas.0308085100PMC 337021Freely accessiblePMID 14745010.
  17. Jump up^ “Scientists Identify Neanderthal Genes in Modern Human DNA”. January 30, 2014. Retrieved October 29, 2015.
  18. Jump up^ Homo neanderthalensis King, 1864″. Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Human Evolution. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell. 2013. pp. 328–31.
  19. Jump up^ Bednarik, R.G. (2012). “U–Th analysis and rock art: a response to Pike et al”Rock Art Research29 (2): 244–46.
  20. Jump up^ Bodkin-Kowacki, Eva (March 14, 2017). “How a 400,000-year-old skull fragment hints at ancient ‘unified humanity'”The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved May 21, 2017.
  21. Jump up^ Complete Neanderthal genome sequenced: DNA signatures found in present-day Europeans and Asians but not in AfricansScienceDaily
  22. Jump up^ “Biologists Sequence a New Neanderthal Genome from Vindija Cave in Croatia”. SciTechDaily. 6 October 2017. Retrieved 11 March 2018.
  23. Jump up^ Stringer, C. (1984). “Human evolution and biological adaptation in the Pleistocene”. In Foley, R. Hominid evolution and community ecology. New York: Academic Press. ISBN 978-0122619205.
  24. Jump up^ Holloway, R.L. (1985). “The poor brain of Homo sapiens neanderthalensis: see what you please”. In Delson, E. Ancestors: The hard evidence. New York: Alan R. Liss. ISBN 978-0471843764.
  25. Jump up^ Amano, H.; Kikuchi, T.; Morita, Y.; Kondo, O.; Suzuki, Hiromasa; et al. (August 2015). “Virtual Reconstruction of the Neanderthal Amud 1 Cranium”. American Journal of Physical Anthropology158 (2): 185–97. doi:10.1002/ajpa.22777.
  26. Jump up^ Beals, Kenneth; Smith, Courtland; Dodd, Stephen (1984). “Brain Size, Cranial Morphology, Climate, and Time Machines” (PDF). Current Anthropology12 (3): 301–330. doi:10.1086/203138.
  27. Jump up to:a b Helmuth H (1998). “Body height, body mass and surface area of the Neanderthals”. Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Anthropologie82 (1): 1–12. PMID 9850627.
  28. Jump up^ Sánchez-Quinto, F; Botigué, LR; Civit, S; Arenas, C; Avila-Arcos, MC; Bustamante, CD; Comas, D; Lalueza-Fox, C (October 17, 2012). “North African Populations Carry the Signature of Admixture with Neandertals”PLOS One7 (10): e47765. Bibcode:2012PLoSO…747765Sdoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047765PMC 3474783Freely accessiblePMID 23082212. Retrieved May 29, 2016.
  29. Jump up to:a b c Rincon, Paul (May 6, 2010). “Neanderthal genes ‘survive in us'”. BBC News. Retrieved May 7, 2010.
  30. Jump up^ Fu, Q; Li, H; Moorjani, P; Jay, F; Slepchenko, SM; Bondarev, AA; Johnson, PL; Aximu-Petri, A; Prüfer, K; de Filippo, C; Meyer, M; Zwyns, N; Salazar-García, DC; Kuzmin, YV; Keates, SG; Kosintsev, PA; Razhev, DI; Richards, MP; Peristov, NV; Lachmann, M; Douka, K; Higham, TF; Slatkin, M; Hublin, JJ; Reich, D; Kelso, J; Viola, TB; Pääbo, S (October 23, 2014). “Genome sequence of a 45,000-year-old modern human from western Siberia”Nature514 (7523): 445–49. Bibcode:2014Natur.514..445Fdoi:10.1038/nature13810PMC 4753769Freely accessiblePMID 25341783.
  31. Jump up^ Brahic, Catherine. “Humanity’s forgotten return to Africa revealed in DNA”The New Scientist (February 3, 2014).
  32. Jump up^ S. Sankararaman; S. Mallick; M. Dannemann; K. Prüfer; J. Kelso; N. Patterson; D. Reich (2014). “The landscape of Neandertal ancestry in present-day humans”Nature507 (7492). pp. 354–357. doi:10.1038/nature12961.
  33. Jump up^ Sankararaman, Sriram; Mallick, Swapan; Patterson, Nick; Reich, David (2016). “The Combined Landscape of Denisovan and Neanderthal Ancestry in Present-Day Humans”Current Biology26 (9): 1241–47. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2016.03.037ISSN 0960-9822.
  34. Jump up^ “Neanderthals mated with modern humans much earlier than previously thought, study finds: First genetic evidence of modern human DNA in a Neanderthal individual”ScienceDaily. February 17, 2016. Retrieved March 6, 2016.
  35. Jump up to:a b c d Krings, Matthias; Stone, Anne; Schmitz, Ralf W; Krainitzki, Heike; Stoneking, Mark; Pääbo, Svante (1997). “Neandertal DNA Sequences and the Origin of Modern Humans”. Cell90 (1): 19–30. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80310-4ISSN 0092-8674PMID 9230299.
  36. Jump up to:a b Howell, F. Clark (1957). “The evolutionary significance of variation and varieties of ‘Neanderthal’ man”. The Quarterly Review of Biology32 (4): 330–47. doi:10.1086/401978JSTOR 2816956PMID 13506025.
  37. Jump up^ Foley, Tim. TalkOrigins Archive. “Neanderthal or Neandertal?“. 2005.
  38. Jump up^ Vogt, Karl C (1864). Lectures on Man: His Place in Creation, and in the History of the Earth. London: Longman, Green, Longman and Roberts. pp. 302, 473.
  39. Jump up^ Inter aliaBoys’ Lifep. 18. January 1924.
  40. Jump up^ The Oxford Illustrated Dictionary. Great Britain: Oxford University Press. 1976 [1975]. p. 564. (tahl)
  41. Jump up^ “Neanderthal adjective – definition in British English Dictionary & Thesaurus”. January 8, 2013. Retrieved January 22, 2013.
  42. Jump up^ “Oxford Learner’s Dictionaries – Find pronunciation, clear meanings and definitions of words”.[dead link]
  43. Jump up^ “Neanderthal | Define Neanderthal at”. Retrieved January 22, 2013.
  44. Jump up^ Kurtén, Björn (October 10, 1995). Dance of the Tiger: A Novel of the Ice Age. University of California Press. p. xxi. ISBN 0-520-20277-5. Retrieved May 9, 2012.
  45. Jump up^ Pollet, Carl J. (September 21, 1991). “…And Etymology”. Science News140 (12): 191. doi:10.2307/3975867JSTOR 3975867.
  46. Jump up^ Tattersall, Ian; Schwartz, Jeffrey H. (1999). “Hominids and hybrids: The place of Neanderthals in human evolution”Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences96 (13): 7117–19. Bibcode:1999PNAS…96.7117Tdoi:10.1073/pnas.96.13.7117JSTOR 48019PMC 33580Freely accessiblePMID 10377375.
  47. Jump up to:a b Duarte, C.; Mauricio, J.; Pettitt, P. B. (1999). “The early Upper Paleolithic human skeleton from the Abrigo do Lagar Velho (Portugal) and modern human emergence in Iberia”Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences96 (13): 7604–09. Bibcode:1999PNAS…96.7604Ddoi:10.1073/pnas.96.13.7604ISSN 0027-8424PMC 22133Freely accessiblePMID 10377462. Retrieved June 21, 2009.
  48. Jump up^ Pääbo, Svante (2014). Neanderthal Man: In Search of Lost Genomes. New York: Basic Books. p. 237.
  49. Jump up^ “L’homme fossile de La Chapelle-aux-Saints – full text: Volume VI (pp. 11–172), Volume VII (pp. 21–56), Volume VIII (pp. 1–70), 1911–13”. Royal College of Surgeons of England. Retrieved July 26, 2016.
  50. Jump up^ “Marcellin Boule – French geologist”. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved July 26,2016.
  51. Jump up^ “Arthur Keith”. Royal Anthropological Institute. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved July 26, 2016.
  52. Jump up^ “La Chapelle-Aux-Saints – The old man of La Chapelle – The original reconstruction of the ‘Old Man of La Chapelle’ by scientist Pierre Marcellin Boule led to the reason why popular culture stereotyped Neanderthals as dim-witted brutes for so many years”. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved July 26, 2016.
  53. Jump up^ “Our Neandertal Brethren: Why They Were Not a Separate Species”. Scientific American. August 1, 2010. Retrieved July 26, 2016.
  54. Jump up^ Wolpoff, MH; Hawks, J; Caspari, R (2000). “Multiregional, not multiple origins”(pdf). American Journal of Physical Anthropology112 (1): 129–36. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-8644(200005)112:1<129::AID-AJPA11>3.0.CO;2-KPMID 10766948.
  55. Jump up^ Rightmire, G.P. (2001). “Patterns of hominid evolution and dispersal in the Middle Pleistocene”. Quaternary International75 (1): 77–84. Bibcode:2001QuInt..75…77Rdoi:10.1016/S1040-6182(00)00079-3.
  56. Jump up^ Toro-Moyano, I. (2013). “The oldest human fossil in Europe, from Orce (Spain)”. Journal of Human Evolution65 (1): 1–9. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2013.01.012PMID 23481345.
  57. Jump up^ Wayman, Erin (November 26, 2012). “Homo antecessor: Common Ancestor of Humans and Neanderthals?”. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved May 17, 2017.
  58. Jump up to:a b c d e f K. Prüfer; (2014). “The complete genome sequence of a Neanderthal from the Altai Mountains”Nature505 (7481): 43–49. Bibcode:2014Natur.505…43Pdoi:10.1038/nature12886PMC 4031459Freely accessiblePMID 24352235.
  59. Jump up^ M. Krings (1999). “DNA sequence of the mitochondrial hypervariable region II from the Neandertal type specimen”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA96 (10): 5581–85. Bibcode:1999PNAS…96.5581Kdoi:10.1073/pnas.96.10.5581.
  60. Jump up^ P. Beerli; S.V. Edwards (2002). “When did Neanderthals and modern humans diverge?” (PDF). Evolutionary Anthropology11 (S1): 60–63. doi:10.1002/evan.10058.
  61. Jump up to:a b Ovchinnikov, Igor V.; Götherström, Anders; Romanova, Galina P.; Kharitonov, Vitaliy M.; Lidén, Kerstin; Goodwin, William (2000). “Molecular analysis of Neanderthal DNA from the northern Caucasus”Nature404 (6777): 490–93. Bibcode:2000Natur.404..490Odoi:10.1038/35006625ISSN 0028-0836PMID 10761915.
  62. Jump up to:a b Green, RE; Malaspinas, AS; Krause, J; Briggs, Aw; Johnson, PL; Uhler, C; Meyer, M; Good, JM; Maricic, T; Stenzel, U; Prüfer, K; Siebauer, M; Burbano, HA; Ronan, M; Rothberg, JM; Egholm, M; Rudan, P; Brajković, D; Kućan, Z; Gusić, I; Wikström, M; Laakkonen, L; Kelso, J; Slatkin, M; Pääbo, S (2008). “A complete Neandertal mitochondrial genome sequence determined by high-throughput sequencing”Cell134 (3): 416–26. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.06.021PMC 2602844Freely accessiblePMID 18692465.
  63. Jump up^ R.E. Green; et. al. (2009). “Targeted Retrieval and Analysis of Five Neandertal mtDNA Genomes” (PDF). Science325 (5938): 318–21. Bibcode:2009Sci…325..318Bdoi:10.1126/science.1174462.
  64. Jump up^ P. Endicott; S.Y.W. Ho; C. Stringer (2010). “Using genetic evidence to evaluate four palaeoanthropological hypotheses for the timing of Neanderthal and modern human origins” (PDF). Journal of Human Evolution59 (1): 87–95. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2010.04.005PMID 20510437.
  65. Jump up^ A. Rieux (2014). “Improved calibration of the human mitochondrial clock using ancient genomes”Molecular Biology and Evolution31 (10): 2780–92. doi:10.1093/molbev/msu222PMC 4166928Freely accessiblePMID 25100861.
  66. Jump up^ Cookson, Clive (June 27, 2014). “Palaeontology: How Neanderthals evolved”. Financial Times. Retrieved October 28, 2015.
  67. Jump up to:a b Bischoff, James L.; Shamp, (2003). “The Sima de los Huesos Hominids Date to Beyond U/Th Equilibrium (>350kyr) and Perhaps to 400–500kyr: New Radiometric Dates” (PDF). Journal of Archaeological Science30 (3): 275–80. doi:10.1006/jasc.2002.0834.
  68. Jump up^ Stringer, Chris (2011). The Origin of our Species. Penguin. pp. 26–29, 202. ISBN 978-0-141-03720-2.
  69. Jump up^ Johansson, Donald; Edgar, Blake (2006). From Lucy to Language. Simon & Schuster. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-7432-8064-8.
  70. Jump up to:a b c D. Dean; J.-J. Hublin; R. Holloway; R. Ziegler (1998). “On the phylogenetic position of the pre-Neandertal specimen from Reilingen, Germany”. Journal of Human Evolution34 (5). pp. 485–508. doi:10.1006/jhev.1998.0214.
  71. Jump up to:a b c d e Papagianni, Dmitra; Morse, Michael (2013). The Neanderthals Rediscovered. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-05177-1.
  72. Jump up to:a b c Stringer, C.; Gamble, C. (1993). In Search of the Neanderthals. London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 978-0500050705.
  73. Jump up^ B. Vandermeersch; M.D. Garralda (2011). S. Condemi; G.-C. Weniger, eds. “Continuity or Discontinuity in the Peopling of Europe: One Hundred and Fifty Years of Neanderthal Study”. Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology. Springer Netherlands. pp. 113–25. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-0492-3_10.
  74. Jump up^ N.J. Conard; J. Richter, eds. (2011). “2”. Neanderthal Lifeways, Subsistence and Technology. Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology. 19. Springer. pp. 7–14. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-0415-2_2ISBN 978-94-007-0414-5.
  75. Jump up^ “Ausflug und Urlaub im Kreis Mettmann” (in German). 2017-09-21. Retrieved 2017-12-05.
  76. Jump up^ “Stadt Erkrath” Retrieved 2017-12-05.
  77. Jump up^ “Homo neanderthalensis”Smithsonian Institution. Archived from the original on May 21, 2009. Retrieved May 18, 2009.
  78. Jump up^ “New Evidence On The Role Of Climate In Neanderthal Extinction”. Science Daily.
  79. Jump up^ S. Genovés (1954). “The problem of the sex of certain fossil hominids, with special reference to the Neandertal skeletons from Spy”. The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland84 (1/2). pp. 131–44.
  80. Jump up^ “Neanderthal Man”. Encyclopedia Britannica (15th ed.). 1982.
  81. Jump up^ “Neanderthal – Homo neanderthalensis – Details – Key Fossils – La Chapelle-aux-Saints”. Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved July 18, 2016.
  82. Jump up to:a b H. Dibble and V. Aldeias and P. Goldberg and D. Sandgathe and T.E. Steele (2015). “A critical look at evidence from La Chapelle-aux-Saints supporting an intentional burial”. Journal of Archaeological Science53: 649–57. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2014.04.019.
  83. Jump up to:a b Rendu W, Beauval C, Crevecoeur I, Bayle P, Balzeau A, Bismuth T, Bourguignon L, Delfour G, Faivre JP, Lacrampe-Cuyaubère F, Muth X, Pasty S, Semal P, Tavormina C, Todisco D, Turq A, Maureille B (2016). “Let the dead speak…comments on Dibble et al.’s reply to “Evidence supporting an intentional burial at La Chapelle-aux-Saints””. Journal of Archaeological Science69: 12–20. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2016.02.006.
  84. Jump up to:a b Gargett, R.H. (1989). “Grave Shortcomings: The Evidence for Neandertal Burial”. Current Anthropology30 (2): 157–90. doi:10.1086/203725.
  85. Jump up^ “Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, A paleogenetical study determines the blood group of Neanderthal man” Archived November 22, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  86. Jump up^ Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Rosas, Antonio; Rasilla, Marco de la (2012). “Palaeogenetic research at the El Sidrón Neanderthal site”Annals of Anatomy – Anatomischer Anzeiger194: 133–37. doi:10.1016/j.aanat.2011.01.014.
  87. Jump up^ Schmitz, Ralf W; et al. (2002). “The Neandertal type site revisited: Interdisciplinary investigations of skeletal remains from the Neander Valley, Germany”Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences99 (20): 13342–47. Bibcode:2002PNAS…9913342Sdoi:10.1073/pnas.192464099PMC 130635Freely accessiblePMID 12232049.
  88. Jump up to:a b Green, Richard E.; Krause, Johannes; Ptak, Susan E.; Briggs, Adrian W.; Ronan, Michael T.; Simons, Jan F.; Du, Lei; Egholm, Michael; Rothberg, Jonathan M.; Paunovic, Maja; Pääbo, Svante (2006). “Analysis of one million base pairs of Neanderthal DNA”Nature444 (7117): 330–36. Bibcode:2006Natur.444..330Gdoi:10.1038/nature05336ISSN 0028-0836PMID 17108958. Retrieved 9 September 2017.
  89. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h Green, Richard E.; Krause, Johannes; Briggs, Adrian W.; Maricic, Tomislav; Stenzel, Udo; Kircher, Martin; Patterson, Nick; Li, Heng; Zhai, Weiwei; Fritz, Markus Hsi-Yang; Hansen, Nancy F.; Durand, Eric Y.; Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Jensen, Jeffrey D.; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Alkan, Can; Prüfer, Kay; Meyer, Matthias; Burbano, Hernán A.; Good, Jeffrey M.; Schultz, Rigo; Aximu-Petri, Ayinuer; Butthof, Anne; Höber, Barbara; Höffner, Barbara; Siegemund, Madlen; Weihmann, Antje; Nusbaum, Chad; Lander, Eric S.; Russ, Carsten (2010). “A Draft Sequence of the Neandertal Genome”Science328 (5979): 710–22. Bibcode:2010Sci…328..710Gdoi:10.1126/science.1188021PMC 5100745Freely accessiblePMID 20448178.
  90. Jump up to:a b Sankararaman, S.; Patterson, N.; Li, H.; Pääbo, S.; Reich, D; Akey, J.M. (2012). “The Date of Interbreeding between Neandertals and Modern Humans”PLoS Genetics8 (10): e1002947. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002947PMC 3464203Freely accessiblePMID 23055938.
  91. Jump up to:a b Yang, M.A.; Malaspinas, A.S.; Durand, E.Y.; Slatkin, M. (2012). “Ancient Structure in Africa Unlikely to Explain Neanderthal and Non-African Genetic Similarity”Molecular Biology and Evolution29 (10): 2987–95. doi:10.1093/molbev/mss117PMC 3457770Freely accessiblePMID 22513287.
  92. Jump up to:a b Rendu W, Beauval C, Crevecoeur I, Bayle P, Balzeau A, Bismuth T, Bourguignon L, Delfour G, Faivre JP, Lacrampe-Cuyaubère F, Tavormina C, Todisco D, Turq A, Maureille B (January 2014). “Evidence supporting an intentional Neandertal burial at La Chapelle-aux-Saints”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences111 (1): 81–86. Bibcode:2014PNAS..111…81Rdoi:10.1073/pnas.1316780110.
  93. Jump up^ P. Villa, W. Roebroeks (2014). “Neandertal Demise: An Archaeological Analysis of the Modern Human Superiority Complex”PLOS One9 (4): e96424. Bibcode:2014PLoSO…996424Vdoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0096424PMC 4005592Freely accessiblePMID 24789039.
  94. Jump up^ “The Human Lineage by Matt Cartmill, Fred H. Smith”. Google Books. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
  95. Jump up^ “Ancient tooth provides evidence of Neanderthal movement” (Press release). Durham University. February 11, 2008. Retrieved May 18, 2009.
  96. Jump up^ Wade, Nicholas (October 2, 2007). “Fossil DNA Expands Neanderthal Range”The New York Times. Retrieved May 18, 2009.
  97. Jump up^ Ravilious, Kate (October 1, 2007). “Neandertals Ranged Much Farther East Than Thought”National Geographic Society. Retrieved May 18, 2009.
  98. Jump up^ Pavlov P, Roebroeks W, Svendsen JI (2004). “The Pleistocene colonization of northeastern Europe: a report on recent research”. Journal of Human Evolution47(1–2): 3–17. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2004.05.002PMID 15288521.
  99. Jump up^ O’Neill, Dennis. “Evolution of Modern Humans: Neanderthals”, Palomar College, June 10, 2011. Retrieved August 21, 2011.
  100. Jump up^ Puech, Pierre-François; Puech, Bernard. “L’Homme de Neanderthal par Paul Dardé : L’Homme Primitif” [Neanderthal Man by Paul Dardé: Primitive Man]. (in French). Retrieved July 5, 2017.
  101. Jump up^ “Science & Nature – Wildfacts – Neanderthal”. BBC. Archived from the originalon January 15, 2009. Retrieved June 21, 2009.
  102. Jump up^ “Neanderthal”. BBC. Archived from the original on January 15, 2009. Retrieved May 18, 2009.
  103. Jump up to:a b Froehle, Andrew W; Churchill, Steven E (2009). “Energetic Competition Between Neandertals and Anatomically Modern Humans” (PDF). PaleoAnthropology: 96–116. Retrieved October 31, 2011.
  104. Jump up to:a b Lalueza-Fox, C.; Rompler, H.; Caramelli, D.; Staubert, C.; Catalano, G.; Hughes, D.; Rohland, N.; Pilli, E.; Longo, L.; Condemi, S.; de la Rasilla, M.; Fortea, J.; Rosas, A.; Stoneking, M.; Schoneberg, T.; Bertranpetit, J.; Hofreiter, M. (2007). “A Melanocortin 1 Receptor Allele Suggests Varying Pigmentation Among Neanderthals” (PDF). Science318 (5855): 1453–55. Bibcode:2007Sci…318.1453Ldoi:10.1126/science.1147417ISSN 0036-8075PMID 17962522. Retrieved September 10, 2017.; see also Rincon, Paul (October 25, 2007). “Neanderthals ‘were flame-haired'”. BBC News. Retrieved October 25,2007.
  105. Jump up^ The 10,000 Year Explosion: How Civilizations Accelerated Human Evolution (2009). Gregory Cochran and Henry Harpending. Basic Books, New York, NY
  106. Jump up^ Azevedo, S. de; González, M. F.; Cintas, C.; Ramallo, V.; Quinto-Sánchez, M.; Márquez, F.; Hünemeier, T.; Paschetta, C.; Ruderman, A.; Navarro, P.; Pazos, B.; Silva de Cerqueira, C.; Velan, O.; Ramírez-Rozzi, F.; Calvo, N.; Castro, H.; Paz, R.R.; González-José, R. (2017-10-30). “Nasal airflow simulations suggest convergent adaptation in Neanderthals and modern humans”Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences114: 201703790. doi:10.1073/pnas.1703790114ISSN 0027-8424PMC 5703271Freely accessiblePMID 29087302.
  107. Jump up^ [1]
  108. Jump up^ Hoffecker, JF (2009). “The spread of modern humans in Europe”. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA106: 16040. doi:10.1073/pnas.0903446106.– References 399 Hoffecker JF, Cleghorn …
  109. Jump up^ “Neanderthal brains focused on vision and movement leaving less room for social networking”. Science Daily. March 19, 2013.
  110. Jump up^ SINC Servicio de Información y Noticias Científicas. “El cerebro neandertal era más asimétrico que el del ‘Homo sapiens'”.
  111. Jump up^ “Neanderthal Brain Size at Birth Sheds Light on Human Evolution”. National Geographic. September 9, 2008. Retrieved September 19, 2009.
  112. Jump up^ Silberman, Neil. The Oxford Companion to Archaeology, p. 455 (Oxford University Press 2012): “[I]t is with the Neanderthals that we see the full achievement, for the first time, of the degree of encephalization (brain to body size ratio) that characterizes modern humans.”
  113. Jump up^ Abramiuk, Marc. The Foundations of Cognitive Archaeology, p. 199 (MIT Press 2012): “the encephalization quotient was slightly smaller”.
  114. Jump up^ Moskvitch, Katia (September 24, 2010). “Neanderthals were able to ‘develop their own tools'”BBC News. BBC. Retrieved October 1, 2010.
  115. Jump up^ Heyes, Peter; Anastasakis, Konstantinos; de Jong, Wiebren (2016). “Selection and Use of Manganese Dioxide by Neanderthals”Scientific Reports6: 22159. Bibcode:2016NatSR…622159Hdoi:10.1038/srep22159ISSN 2045-2322PMC 4770591Freely accessiblePMID 26922901.
  116. Jump up^ Bocherens, Hervé; Drucker, Dorothée G.; Billiou, Daniel; Patou-Mathis, Marylène; Vandermeersch, Bernard (2005). “Isotopic evidence for diet and subsistence pattern of the Saint-Césaire I Neanderthal: Review and use of a multi-source mixing model”. Journal of Human Evolution49 (1): 71–87. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2005.03.003PMID 15869783.
  117. Jump up to:a b Ghosh, Pallab. “Neanderthals cooked and ate vegetables.” BBC News. December 27, 2010.
  118. Jump up^ Lichfield, John (September 30, 2006). “French dig up Neanderthal ‘butcher’s shop'”. The New Zealand Herald.
  119. Jump up to:a b Richards, Michael P.; Pettitt, Paul B.; Trinkaus, Erik; Smith, Fred H.; Paunović, Maja; Karavanić, Ivor (2000). “Neanderthal diet at Vindija and Neanderthal predation: The evidence from stable isotopes”Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences97 (13): 7663–66. Bibcode:2000pnas…97.7663rdoi:10.1073/pnas.120178997JSTOR 122870PMC 16602Freely accessiblePMID 10852955.
  120. Jump up^ Fiorenza, Luca; Benazzi, Stefano; Tausch, Jeremy; Kullmer, Ottmar; Bromage, Timothy G.; Schrenk, Friedemann (2011). Rosenberg, Karen, ed. “Molar Macrowear Reveals Neanderthal Eco-Geographic Dietary Variation”PLOS One6 (3): e14769. Bibcode:2011PLoSO…614769Fdoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0014769PMC 3060801Freely accessiblePMID 21445243.
  121. Jump up^ Henry, A. G.; Brooks, A. S.; Piperno, D. R. (2010). “Microfossils in calculus demonstrate consumption of plants and cooked foods in Neanderthal diets (Shanidar III, Iraq; Spy I and II, Belgium)”Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences108 (2): 486–91. Bibcode:2011PNAS..108..486Hdoi:10.1073/pnas.1016868108PMC 3021051Freely accessiblePMID 21187393.
  122. Jump up^ Webb, Jonathan (June 25, 2014). “Oldest human faeces show Neanderthals ate vegetables”. BBC News.
  123. Jump up^ “Neanderthal behaviour, diet, and disease inferred from ancient DNA in dental calculus : Nature”The Guardian. Retrieved March 9, 2017.
  124. Jump up^ Nicola Davis (March 8, 2017). “Neanderthal dental tartar reveals plant-based diet – and drugs”The Guardian. Retrieved March 9, 2017.
  125. Jump up^ Shaw, Kate (July 29, 2011). “Sheer Numbers Gave Early Humans Edge Over Neanderthals”.
  126. Jump up^ Vergano, Dan (April 22, 2014). “Neanderthals Lived in Small, Isolated Populations, Gene Analysis Shows”. National Geographic.
  127. Jump up to:a b Tattersall, Ian (2015). The Strange Case of the Rickety Cossack and other Cautionary Tales from Human Evolution. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 202. ISBN 978-1-137-27889-0.
  128. Jump up^ Zollikofer, Christoph; Marcia, Ponce; Leon, De; Vandermeersch, Bernard; Leveque, Francois (2002). “Evidence for Interpersonal Violence in the St. Césaire Neanderthal”PNAS99 (9): 6444–48. Bibcode:2002PNAS…99.6444Zdoi:10.1073/pnas.082111899PMC 122968Freely accessiblePMID 11972028.
  129. Jump up^ Gargett, R.H. (1999). “Middle Palaeolithic burial is not a dead issue: the view from Qafzeh, Saint-Césaire, Kebara, Amud, and Dederiyeh”. Journal of Human Evolution37 (1): 27–90. doi:10.1006/jhev.1999.0301PMID 10375476.
  130. Jump up^ Higham T, Jacobi R, Julien M, David F, Basell L, Wood R, Davies W, Ramsey CB.C (2010). “Chronology of the Grotte du Renne (France) and implications for the context of ornaments and human remains within the Chatelperronian”. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. doi:10.1073/pnas.1007963107 PMID 20956292
  131. Jump up^ Mellars P. (2010). “Neanderthal symbolism and ornament manufacture: The bursting of a bubble?” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA doi:10.1073/pnas.1014588107
  132. Jump up^ J.-J. Hublin; S. Talamo; M. Julien; F. David; N. Connet; P. Bodu; B. Vandermeersch; M.P. Richards. “Radiocarbon dates from the Grotte du Renne and Saint-Césaire support a Neandertal origin for the Châtelperronian”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA109 (46). doi:10.1073/pnas.1212924109.
  133. Jump up^ F. Welkera; M. Hajdinjak; S. Talamo; K. Jaouen; M. Dannemann; F. David; M. Julien; M. Meyer; J. Kelso; I. Barnes; S. Brace; P. Kamminga; R. Fischer; B.M. Kessler; J.R. Stewart; S. Pääbo; M.J. Collins; J.-J. Hublin. “Palaeoproteomic evidence identifies archaic hominins associated with the Châtelperronian at the Grotte du Renne”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA113 (40). pp. 11, 162–11, 167. doi:10.1073/pnas.1605834113.
  134. Jump up^ “Neanderthals were not inferior to modern humans, study finds”ScienceDaily. 30 April 2014.
  135. Jump up^ E. de Lazaro (18 January 2017). “Neanderthals Capable of Incorporating Symbolic Objects into Their Culture, Discovery Suggests”Sci News.
  136. Jump up^ C.Q. Choi (8 January 2010). “Heavy Brows, High Art?: Newly Unearthed Painted Shells Show Neandertals Were Homo sapiens‘ Mental Equals”Scientific American.
  137. Jump up^ I. Sample (30 April 2014). “Neanderthals were not less intelligent than modern humans, scientists find”The Guardian.
  138. Jump up^ N. Branan (2010). “Neandertal Symbolism: Evidence Suggests a Biological Basis for Symbolic Thought”Scientific American.
  139. Jump up^ R. S. Solecki (1975). “Shanidar IV, a Neanderthal Flower Burial in Northern Iraq”. Science190 (4217): 880–81. Bibcode:1975Sci…190..880Sdoi:10.1126/science.190.4217.880.
  140. Jump up^ D.J. Sommer (1999). “The Shanidar IV ‘Flower Burial’: a Re-evaluation of Neanderthal Burial Ritual”. Cambridge Archaeological Journal9 (1): 127–29. doi:10.1017/s0959774300015249.
  141. Jump up^ Paul B. Pettitt (2002). “The Neanderthal Dead, exploring mortuary variability in Middle Paleolithic Eurasia”. Before Farming1 (4).
  142. Jump up^ “Neanderthal ‘make-up’ discovered”. BBC News. 9 January 2010. Retrieved 20 May 2010.
  143. Jump up^ “Did Neanderthals use feathers for fashion?”New Scientist. Retrieved 16 June2017.
  144. Jump up^ Finlayson, Clive; Brown, Kimberly; Blasco, Ruth; Rosell, Jordi; Negro, Juan José; Bortolotti, Gary R; Finlayson, Geraldine; Sánchez Marco, Antonio; Giles Pacheco, Francisco; Rodríguez Vidal, Joaquín; Carrión, José S; Fa, Darren A; Rodríguez Llanes, José M (17 September 2012). “Birds of a Feather: Neanderthal Exploitation of Raptors and Corvids”PLOS One7 (9): e45927. Bibcode:2012PLoSO…745927Fdoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0045927.
  145. Jump up^ E. Callaway (2014). “Neanderthals made some of Europe’s oldest art”Nature Newsdoi:10.1038/nature.2014.15805.
  146. Jump up^ P. Rincon (1 September 2014). “Neanderthal ‘artwork’ found in Gibraltar cave”. BBC.
  147. Jump up^ Jaubert, Jacques; Verheyden, Sophie; Genty, Dominique; Soulier, Michel; Cheng, Hai; Blamart, Dominique; Burlet, Christian; Camus, Hubert; Delaby, Serge; Deldicque, Damien; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Ferrier, Catherine; Lacrampe-Cuyaubère, François; Lévêque, François; Maksud, Frédéric; Mora, Pascal; Muth, Xavier; Régnier, Édouard; Rouzaud, Jean-Noël; Santos, Frédéric (2 June 2016) [online 25 May 2016]. “Early Neanderthal Constructions deep in Bruniquel Cave in Southwestern France”Nature534 (7605): 111–14. Bibcode:2016Natur.534..111Jdoi:10.1038/nature18291ISSN 0028-0836PMID 27251286.
  148. Jump up^ Radovčić, D.; Sršen, A. O.; Radovčić, J.; Frayer, D. W. (2015). “Evidence for Neandertal jewelry: Modified white-tailed eagle claws at Krapina”. PLOS ONE10 (3): e0119802. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0119802.
  149. Jump up^ Ewen Callaway. 2015. Neanderthals wore eagle talons as jewellery, Nature News.
  150. Jump up^ Pike, A. W.; Hoffmann, D. L.; Pettitt, P. B.; García-Diez, M.; Zilhão, J. (2017). “Dating Palaeolithic cave art: Why U–Th is the way to go”. Quaternary International432: 41–49. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2015.12.013.
  151. Jump up^ D. L. Hoffmann; C. D. Standish; M. García-Diez; P. B. Pettitt; J. A. Milton; J. Zilhão; J. J. Alcolea-González; P. Cantalejo-Duarte; H. Collado; R. de Balbín; M. Lorblanchet; J. Ramos-Muñoz; G.-Ch. Weniger; A. W. G. Pike (2018). “U-Th dating of carbonate crusts reveals Neandertal origin of Iberian cave art”. Science359 (6378): 912–915. doi:10.1126/science.aap7778.
  152. Jump up^ “Ancient cave paintings turn out to be by Neanderthals, not modern humans”.
  153. Jump up^ Brown, Cynthia Stokes. Big History. New York, NY: The New Press, 2008. Print.
  154. Jump up^ Moulson, Geir; Associated Press (July 20, 2006). “Neanderthal genome project launches”MSNBC. Retrieved August 22, 2006.
  155. Jump up^ Lunine 2013, p. 251: “The Neanderthal genome is about the same size as the human genome, and is identical to that of present-day humans to a level of 99.7% (this is comparing the ordering of the lettering in the nucleotide bases).”
  156. Jump up^ Wade, Nicholas (November 15, 2006). “New Machine Sheds Light on DNA of Neanderthals”The New York Times. Retrieved May 18, 2009.
  157. Jump up^ Pennisi, E. (May 2007). “Ancient DNA. No sex please, we’re Neandertals”. Science316 (5827): 967. doi:10.1126/science.316.5827.967aPMID 17510332.
  158. Jump up^ “Neanderthal bone gives DNA clues”. CNN. Associated Press. November 16, 2006. Archived from the original on November 18, 2006. Retrieved May 18, 2009.
  159. Jump up^ Than, Ker; LiveScience (November 15, 2006). “Scientists decode Neanderthal genes”MSNBC. Retrieved May 18, 2009.
  160. Jump up^ “Studies find Neanderthal genes in modern humans”.
  161. Jump up^ Zimmer, Carl (December 18, 2013). “Toe Fossil Provides Complete Neanderthal Genome”New York Times. Retrieved December 18, 2013.
  162. Jump up^ “Neanderthal Genome Sequencing Yields Surprising Results And Opens A New Door To Future Studies” (Press release). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. November 16, 2006. Retrieved May 31, 2009.
  163. Jump up to:a b Hayes, Jacqui (November 15, 2006). “DNA find deepens Neanderthal mystery”Cosmos. Archived from the original on March 26, 2009. Retrieved May 18, 2009.
  164. Jump up to:a b Elizabeth Pennisi (2009). “Tales of a Prehistoric Human Genome”. Science323(5916): 866–71. doi:10.1126/science.323.5916.866PMID 19213888.
  165. Jump up^ Green RE, Briggs AW, Krause J, Prüfer K, Burbano HA, Siebauer M, Lachmann M, Pääbo S (2009). “The Neandertal genome and ancient DNA authenticity”EMBO J28 (17): 2494–502. doi:10.1038/emboj.2009.222PMC 2725275Freely accessiblePMID 19661919.
  166. Jump up to:a b “Surprise! 20 Percent of Neanderthal Genome Lives On in Modern Humans, Scientists Find”. National Geographic. Retrieved October 7, 2016.
  167. Jump up to:a b c “New studies reveal 20 Percent of Neanderthal genome lives on in modern humans”. Retrieved October 7, 2016.
  168. Jump up^ “Ancient DNA and Neanderthals”. The Smithsonian Institution’s Human Origins Program.
  169. Jump up^ “Science/Nature – Neanderthals ‘were flame-haired'”. BBC News.
  170. Jump up^ Neanderthals did not interbreed with humans, scientists find Archived April 19, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.. Telegraph. Retrieved May 24, 2014.
  171. Jump up^ Press Association (February 4, 2013). “Neanderthals ‘unlikely to have interbred with human ancestors'”The Guardian. Retrieved May 24, 2014.
  172. Jump up to:a b Lowery, Robert K.; Uribe, Gabriel; Jimenez, Eric B.; Weiss, Mark A.; Herrera, Kristian J.; Regueiro, Maria; Herrera, Rene J. (2013). “Neanderthal and Denisova genetic affinities with contemporary humans: Introgression versus common ancestral polymorphisms”. Gene530 (1): 83–94. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2013.06.005ISSN 0378-1119PMID 23872234.
  173. Jump up^ Neanderthal breeding idea doubted. BBC. Retrieved March 2, 2016.
  174. Jump up^ Pratas, D; Hosseini, M; Silva, R; Pinho, A; Ferreira, P (June 20–23, 2017). “Visualization of Distinct DNA Regions of the Modern Human Relatively to a Neanderthal Genome”Iberian Conference on Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis. Springer. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 10255: 235–42. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-58838-4_26ISBN 978-3-319-58837-7.
  175. Jump up to:a b Vernot, Benjamin; Akey, Joshua M (2015). “Complex History of Admixture between Modern Humans and Neandertals”American Journal of Human Genetics96 (3): 454–61. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2015.01.006PMC 4375686Freely accessiblePMID 25683119.
  176. Jump up^ Kim, BY; Lohmueller, KE (2015). “Selection and Reduced Population Size Cannot Explain Higher Amounts of Neandertal Ancestry in East Asian than in European Human Populations”American Journal of Human Genetics96 (3): 448–53. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2014.12.029PMC 4375557Freely accessiblePMID 25683122.
  177. Jump up to:a b [2]. The Daily Mail. Retrieved January 26, 2016.
  178. Jump up to:a b c Zimmer, Carl (March 17, 2016). “Humans Interbred With Hominins on Multiple Occasions, Study Finds”The New York Times. Retrieved March 17, 2016.
  179. Jump up^ Mendez, Fernando L.; et al. (April 7, 2016). “The Divergence of Neandertal and Modern Human Y Chromosomes” (PDF). The American Journal of Human Genetics98 (4): 728–34. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2016.02.023PMC 4833433Freely accessiblePMID 27058445. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
  180. Jump up^ “DNA points to Neanderthal breeding barrier”. BBC News, Science & Environment. April 8, 2016. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
  181. Jump up^ Sample, Ian (February 17, 2016). “Oldest known case of Neanderthal-human sex revealed by DNA test”the Guardian. Retrieved May 10, 2016.
  182. Jump up to:a b Gokhman D, Lavi E, Prüfer K, Fraga MF, Riancho JA, Kelso J, Pääbo S, Meshorer E, Carmel L (2014). “Reconstructing the DNA methylation maps of the Neandertal and the Denisovan”. Science344 (6183): 523–27. Bibcode:2014Sci…344..523Gdoi:10.1126/science.1250368PMID 24786081.
  183. Jump up^ Stein, Richard A (October 1, 2015). “Copy Number Analysis Starts to Add Up”Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News (Paper). 35 (17): 20. Neanderthals, which are thought to have come into conteact with modern humans approximately 80,000 years ago, appear to have survived until about 35,000 years ago in some regions of Europe.(subscription required)
  184. Jump up to:a b Finlayson, C., Carrión, J.S. (April 2007). “Rapid ecological turnover and its impact on Neanderthal and other human populations”. Trends in Ecology & Evolution (Personal Edition)22 (4): 213–22. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2007.02.001PMID 17300854.
  185. Jump up^ “First genocide of human beings occurred 30,000 years ago”Pravda. October 24, 2007. Retrieved May 18, 2009.
  186. Jump up^ Diamond, Jared M. (1992). The third chimpanzee: the evolution and future of the human animalNew York CityHarperCollins. p. 52. ISBN 0-06-098403-1OCLC 60088352.
  187. Jump up^ Currat, Mathias; Excoffier, Laurent (2004). “Modern Humans Did Not Admix with Neanderthals during Their Range Expansion into Europe”PLoS Biology2 (12): e421. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0020421PMC 532389Freely accessiblePMID 15562317.
  188. Jump up^ Wong, Kate (August 1, 2009). “The Mysterious Downfall of the Neandertals”Scientific American.
  189. Jump up^ Adler, Daniel S.; Bar-Oz, Guy; Belfer-Cohen, Anna; Bar-Yosef, Ofer (2006). “Ahead of the Game: Middle and Upper Palaeolithic Hunting Behaviors in the Southern Caucasus”. Current Anthropology47 (1): 89–118. doi:10.1086/432455.
  190. Jump up^ Wilford, John Noble (November 2, 2011). “Fossil Teeth Put Humans in Europe Earlier Than Thought”New York Times. Retrieved August 27, 2014.
  191. Jump up^ Wolff, H. “Result Filters.” National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, July 2010. Web. October 22, 2014.
  192. Jump up^ McKie, Robin (March 1, 2015). “How hunting with wolves helped humans outsmart the Neanderthals”The Guardian. Retrieved May 5, 2016.
  193. Jump up^ Stringer, Chris (2012). “Evolution: What makes a modern human”. Nature485(7396): 33–35. Bibcode:2012Natur.485…33Sdoi:10.1038/485033aPMID 22552077.
  194. Jump up^ Boule, Marcellin (1911–1913). “L’homme fossile de La Chapelle-aux-Saints”. Annales de Paléontologie (in French). 6–8.
  195. Jump up^ G.E. Smith (1928). “Neanderthal Man Not Our Ancestor”Scientific American139(2): 112–115. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0828-112.(subscription required)
  196. Jump up^ Huxley, Thomas H. “Man’s Place in Nature and Other Anthropological Essays”Google Books. J. A. Hill.
  197. Jump up^ Steensby, H. P. (1907). “Racestudier i Danmark” [Race Studies In Denmark] (PDF). Geographical Journal (in Danish). Royal Library, Denmark. Retrieved July 6,2017.
  198. Jump up^ Coon, Carleton Stevens (1962). The Origin of races. New York: Knopf. pp. 548–9.
  199. Jump up^ Cairney, Christopher Thomas (1989). Clans and Families of Ireland and Scotland, an Ethnography of the Gael. London: McFarland. p. 14. ISBN 9780899503622.
  200. Jump up^ Liu, Prugnolle et al. (2006). “Currently available genetic and archaeological evidence is supportive of a recent single origin of modern humans in East Africa. However, this is where the consensus on human settlement history ends, and considerable uncertainty clouds any more detailed aspect of human colonization history.”
  201. Jump up^ Stringer, Chris (June 2003). “Human evolution: Out of Ethiopia”. Nature423 (6941): 692–3, 695. Bibcode:2003Natur.423..692Sdoi:10.1038/423692aPMID 12802315.
  202. Jump up^ Dan Jones: The Neanderthal within.New Scientist 193.2007, H. 2593 (March 3), 28–32. Modern Humans, Neanderthals May Have Interbred[dead link] ; Humans and Neanderthals interbred Archived February 22, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  203. Jump up^ Foley, Jim (July 31, 2000). “The Lagar Velho 1 Skeleton”Fossil Hominids FAQTalkOrigins Archive. Retrieved July 6, 2017.
  204. Jump up^ Sample, Ian (September 13, 2006). “Life on the edge: was a Gibraltar cave last outpost of the lost neanderthal?”The Guardian. Retrieved July 6, 2017.
  205. Jump up^ “Not a lasting last for the Neandertals”john hawks weblog. September 13, 2006. Retrieved July 6, 2017.
  206. Jump up^ Soficaru, Andrei; Dobos, Adrian; Trinkaus, Erik (2006). “Early modern humans from the Pestera Muierii, Baia de Fier, Romania”Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences103 (46): 17196–201. Bibcode:2006PNAS..10317196Sdoi:10.1073/pnas.0608443103JSTOR 30052409PMC 1859909Freely accessiblePMID 17085588.
  207. Jump up^ Wade, Nicholas (July 26, 2012). “Genetic Data and Fossil Evidence Tell Differing Tales of Human Origins”The New York Times. Retrieved May 5, 2015.
  208. Jump up^ Svante Pääbo (2014). Neanderthal Man: In Search of Lost Genomes. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0465054954.
  209. Jump up^ Yotova, V.; Lefebvre, J.-F.; Moreau, C.; Gbeha, E.; Hovhannesyan, K.; Bourgeois, S.; Bédarida, S.; Azevedo, L.; Amorim, A.; Sarkisian, T.; Avogbe, P. H.; Chabi, N.; Dicko, M. H.; Kou’ Santa Amouzou, E. S.; Sanni, A.; Roberts-Thomson, J.; Boettcher, B.; Scott, R. J.; Labuda, D. (2011). “An X-Linked Haplotype of Neandertal Origin is Present Among All Non-African Populations”. Molecular Biology and Evolution28 (7): 1957–62. doi:10.1093/molbev/msr024PMID 21266489.
  210. Jump up^ Viegas, Jennifer (July 18, 2011). “All Non-Africans Part Neanderthal, Genetics Confirm”DNews.
  211. Jump up^ “Neandertal ancestry “Iced””john hawks weblog. August 15, 2012. Retrieved July 6, 2017.
  212. Jump up^ “Resurrecting Surviving Neandertal Lineages from Modern Human Genomes”. Science. January 29, 2014. Retrieved February 2, 2014.
  213. Jump up^ Mitchell, Alanna (January 30, 2012). “DNA Turning Human Story Into a Tell-All”NY Times. Retrieved January 31, 2012.
  214. Jump up^ Lohse, Konrad; Frantz, Laurent A. F. (2013). “Maximum likelihood evidence for Neandertal admixture in Eurasian populations from three genomes”. Populations and Evolution1307: 8263. arXiv:1307.8263Freely accessibleBibcode:2013arXiv1307.8263L.
  215. Jump up^ Jha, Alok (August 14, 2012). “Study casts doubt on human-Neanderthal interbreeding theory”The Guardian. Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  216. Jump up^ Hawks, John (2013). “Significance of Neandertal and Denisovan Genomes in Human Evolution”. Annual Review of Anthropology42: 433–49. doi:10.1146/annurev-anthro-092412-155548.
  217. Jump up^ Mason, Paul H.; Short, Roger V. (2011). “Neanderthal-human Hybrids”. Hypothesis9: e1. doi:10.5779/hypothesis.v9i1.215.
  218. Jump up^ The Neanderthal Dead, exploring mortuary variability in middle paleolithic eurasia. Paul B. Pettitt (2002)
  219. Jump up^ Homo neanderthalensis – The Neanderthals”. Australian Museum. Retrieved June 26, 2014.
  220. Jump up^ Arsuaga JL, Martínez I, Gracia A, Lorenzo C (1997). “The Sima de los Huesos crania (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain). A comparative study”. Journal of Human Evolution33 (2–3): 219–81. doi:10.1006/jhev.1997.0133PMID 9300343.
  221. Jump up^ Kreger, C. David. “Homo neanderthalensis”. Retrieved May 16, 2009.
  222. Jump up^ Mcdermott, F; Grün, R; Stringer, Cb; Hawkesworth, Cj (May 1993). “Mass-spectrometric U-series dates for Israeli Neanderthal/early modern hominid sites”. Nature363 (6426): 252–55. Bibcode:1993Natur.363..252Mdoi:10.1038/363252a0ISSN 0028-0836PMID 8387643.
  223. Jump up^ Rink, W. Jack; Schwarcz, H.P.; Lee, H.K.; Rees-Jones, J.; Rabinovich, R.; Hovers, E. (August 2002). “Electron spin resonance (ESR) and thermal ionization mass spectrometric (TIMS) 230Th/234U dating of teeth in Middle Paleolithic layers at Amud Cave, Israel”. Geoarchaeology16 (6): 701–17. doi:10.1002/gea.1017.
  224. Jump up^ Valladas, Hélène; Merciera, N.; Frogeta, L.; Hoversb, E.; Joronc, J.L.; Kimbeld, W.H.; Rak, Y. (March 1999). “TL Dates for the Neanderthal Site of the Amud Cave, Israel”. Journal of Archaeological Science26 (3): 259–68. doi:10.1006/jasc.1998.0334.
  225. Jump up^ R.E. Wood, T.F.G. Higham, T. de Torres, N. Tisnérate-Laborde, H. Valladas, J.E. Ortiz, C. Lalueza-Fox, S. Sánchez-Moral, J.C. Cañaveras, A. Rosas, D. Santamaría, M. de la Rasilla (March 20, 2012). “A new date for the Neanderthals from El Sidrón Cave (Asturias, Northern Spain)”. Archaeometry55 (1): 148–58. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4754.2012.00671.x.
  226. Jump up^ Hayes, Jacqui (November 2, 2006). “Humans and Neanderthals interbred”Cosmos. Archived from the original on February 22, 2009. Retrieved May 17, 2009.
  227. Jump up^ Neanderthal image by Kupka, based on Boule, 1909, in Humanity’s Journeys Dr. Kathryn Denning, 2005. Retrieved March 17, 2012.
  228. Jump up^ Diamond, Jared (April 20, 2018). A Brand-New Version of Our Origin StoryThe New York Times. Retrieved April 23, 2018.



External links[edit]


Deixe um comentário

Preencha os seus dados abaixo ou clique em um ícone para log in:

Logotipo do

Você está comentando utilizando sua conta Sair /  Alterar )

Foto do Google

Você está comentando utilizando sua conta Google. Sair /  Alterar )

Imagem do Twitter

Você está comentando utilizando sua conta Twitter. Sair /  Alterar )

Foto do Facebook

Você está comentando utilizando sua conta Facebook. Sair /  Alterar )

Conectando a %s