Artemisia (plant) (Wiki English)

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Artemisia abrotanum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Subfamily: Asteroideae
Tribe: Anthemideae
Genus: Artemisia
L., 1753
Type species
Artemisia vulgaris
See text
Absinthium Mill.
Chamartemisia Rydb.
Elachanthemum Y.Ling & Y.R.Ling
Oligosporus Cass.[1]

Artemisia absinthium (Absinthe Wormwood)

Artemisia absinthium (Absinthe Wormwood) shoots

Artemisia absinthium (Absinthe Wormwood) leaves and flowers

Artemisia californica (California Sagebrush) leaves

Artemisia cina (Levant Wormseed)

Artemisia mauiensis (Maui Wormwood)

Artemisia nilagirica (Indian Wormwood)

Artemisia pontica (Roman Wormwood)

Artemisia pycnocephala (Beach Sagewort) flowers

Artemisia (play /ˌɑrtɨˈmziə/)[2] is a large, diverse genus of plants with between 200 to 400 species belonging to the daisy family Asteraceae. It comprises hardy herbs and shrubs known for their volatile oils. They grow in temperate climates of the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere, usually in dry or semi-dry habitats. The fern-like leaves of many species are covered with white hairs. Some botanists split the genus into several genera, but DNA analysis[3] does not support the maintenance of the genera Crossostephium, Filifolium, Neopallasia, Seriphidium, and Sphaeromeria; three other segregate genera Stilnolepis, Elachanthemum, and Kaschgaria are maintained by this evidence.

Common names used for several species include mugwort, sagebrush, sagewort, and wormwood, while a few species have unique names, notably Tarragon (A. dracunculus) and Southernwood (A. abrotanum). Occasionally some of the species are called sages, causing confusion with the Salvia sages in the family Lamiaceae.

Most species have strong aromas and bitter tastes from terpenoids and sesquiterpene lactones, which exists as an adaptation to discourage herbivory.[4] The small flowers are wind-pollinated.[4]

Artemisia species are used as food plants by the larvae of a number of Lepidoptera species. See List of Lepidoptera that feed on Artemisia.



[edit] Cultivation and uses

The aromatic leaves of many species of Artemisia are medicinal, and some are used for flavouring. Most species have an extremely bitter taste. A. dracunculus (Tarragon) is widely used as a herb, particularly important in French cuisine.

Artemisia absinthium (Absinth Wormwood) was used to repel fleas and moths, and in brewing (wormwood beer, wormwood wine). The aperitif vermouth (derived from the German word Wermut, “wormwood”) is a wine flavored with aromatic herbs, but originally with wormwood. The highly potent spirits absinthe and Malört also contain wormwood. Polish vodka Zoladkowa Gorzka is flavoured with wormwood. Wormwood has been used medicinally as a tonic, stomachic, febrifuge and anthelmintic.

Some have taken dried Wormwood, placed it inside a coffee filter to form a sort of “pod” and then placed them under furniture and such as a natural way of repelling fleas from their home.

Artemisia arborescens (Tree Wormwood, or Sheeba in Arabic) is a very bitter herb indigenous to the Middle East that is used in tea, usually with Mentha also known as mint. In small quantities (in tea) its believed to have medicinal properties, pacifying various kinds of digestion turmoils. In larger doses it may have some hallucinogenic properties. In Israel Artemisia is sometimes referred to by the name “Shiva”, the Queen of Sheba.

Within Wicca, both Wormwood and Mugwort are believed to have effects on psychic abilities[citation needed]. Because of the power believed to be inherent in certain herbs of the genus Artemisia, many believers cultivate the plants in a “moon garden”.

The beliefs surrounding this genus are founded upon the strong association between the herbs of the genus Artemisia and the moon goddess Artemis, who is believed to hold these powers.

It is also said that the genus Artemisia (which includes over 400 plants) may be named after an ancient botanist. Artemisia was the wife and sister of the Greek/Persian King Mausolus from the name of whose tomb we get the word mausoleum. Artemisia, who ruled for three years after the king’s death, was a botanist and medical researcher, and died in 350 B.C.[5][6]

The bitterness of the plant led to its use by wet-nurses for weaning infants from the breast, as in this speech by Shakespeare from Romeo and Juliet Act I, Scene 3:

Nurse: …

And she [Juliet] was wean’d,–I never shall forget it, –
Of all the days of the year, upon that day:
For I had then laid wormwood to my dug,

Shakespeare also refers to the herb as “Dian’s bud” (Diana being the Roman incarnation of Artemis) in Midsummer Night’s Dream, as the antidote to the love potion concocted from the flower “Love in Idleness” (the pansy) that Oberon and Puck use to enchant the lovers:

Oberon: …

Be as thou wast wont to be:
See as thou wast wont to see:
Dian’s bud o’er Cupid’s flower
Hath such force and blessed power.

MND 4.1.70-73

A few species are grown as ornamental plants, the fine-textured ones used for clipped bordering. All grow best in free-draining sandy soil, unfertilized, and in full sun.

Artemisinin (from Sweet wormwood, Artemisia annua) is the active ingredient in the anti-malarial combination therapy Coartem produced by Novartis and the World Health Organization.

Artemesia stelleriana is known as ‘Dusty Miller’, but several other species bear that name, including Senecio cineraria, Lychnis coronaria, and Centaurea cineraria.

[edit] Artemisia in popular culture

Artemisia has been mentioned and used in popular culture for centuries. As few examples are listed below.

  • Wormwood (Apsinthos in the Greek text) is the “name of the star” in the Book of Revelation (8:11) (kai to onoma tou asteros legetai ho Apsinthos) that John the Evangelist envisions as cast by the angel and falling into the waters, making them undrinkably bitter. Further references in the Bible show that wormwood was a common herb and that its awful taste was known. (Deuteronomy 29:18, Book of Proverbs 5:4, Jeremiah 9:15, 25:15, Lamentations 3:15,19 Amos 5:7)
  • In the Roald Dahl novel Matilda and its 1996 movie adaptation, Matilda’s last name is Wormwood.
  • Shakespeare often refers to wormwood in Hamlet.
  • Wormwood is a junior devil in The Screwtape Letters, a novel by C. S. Lewis on human temptation.
  • Miss Wormwood is the name of Calvin’s teacher in Calvin and Hobbes, a former daily comic strip by Bill Watterson. This character is named after the Screwtape Letters character.
  • In Russian culture, the fact that Artemisia species are commonly used in medicine, and their bitter taste is associated with medicinal effects, has caused wormwood to be seen as a symbol for a “bitter truth” that must be accepted by a deluded (often self-deluded) person. This symbol has acquired a particular poignancy in modern Russian poetry, which often deals with the loss of illusory beliefs in various ideologies.[citation needed]
  • Fort Collins, Colorado based New Belgium brewery produced a Spring Ale called “Springboard” containing Wormwood, Lycium. and Schisandra.
  • In A Series of Unfortunate Events, there is a saying that “tea should be as bitter as wormwood and sharp as a two-edged sword”.
  • In Harry Potter, the Draught of Living Death, an extremely powerful sleeping potion, is made from powdered root of asphodel added to an infusion of wormwood.
  • In the video game Far Cry 2, although the player character is sick with malaria, he is forced to destroy artemisia plants by a local paramilitary faction.

[edit] Selected species

Artemisia abrotanum L.Southernwood, Southern Wormwood, Abrotanum, Lemon Plant
Artemisia absinthium L.Grand Wormwood
Artemisia adamsii Besser
Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd.African Wormwood, African Sagebrush
Artemisia alaskana Rydb.Alaska Wormwood
Artemisia alcockii Pamp.
Artemisia aleutica HulténAleutian Wormwood
Artemisia amoena Poljakov
Artemisia annua L.Annual Wormwood, Sweet Sagewort, Sweet Annie
Artemisia araxina Takht.
Artemisia arborescensTree Wormwood
Artemisia arbuscula Nutt.Little Sagebrush, Low Sagebrush, Black Sage
Artemisia arctica Less.Boreal Sagebrush
Artemisia arctisibirica Korobkov
Artemisia arenaria DC.
Artemisia arenicola Krasch. ex Poljakov
Artemisia argentata Klokov
Artemisia argentea L’Hér.Madeira wormwood
Artemisia argyi H.Lév. & Vaniot
Artemisia argyrophylla Ledeb.
Artemisia armeniaca Lam.
Artemisia aschurbajewii C.G.Aro
Artemisia australis Less.ʻĀhinahina, Oʻahu Wormwood[7]
Artemisia austriaca Jacq.
Artemisia avarica Minat.
Artemisia badhysi Krasch. & Lincz. ex Poljakov
Artemisia balchanorum Krasch.
Artemisia baldshuanica Krasch. & Zaprjag.
Artemisia bargusinensis Spreng.
Artemisia bejdemaniae Leonova
Artemisia biennis Willd.Biennial Sagewort, Biennial Wormwood
Artemisia bigelovii A.GrayBigelow Sage, Bigelow Sagebrush
Artemisia borealis Pall.
Artemisia borotalensis Poljakov
Artemisia bottnica Lundstr. ex Kindb.
Artemisia caespitosa Ledeb.
Artemisia californica Less.Coastal Sagebrush, California Sagebrush
Artemisia camelorum Krasch.
Artemisia campestris L.Field Wormwood
Artemisia camphorata Vill.
Artemisia cana PurshSilver Sagebrush
Artemisia canadensis Michx.Canada Wormwood
Artemisia capillaris Thunb.Capillary Wormwood
Artemisia carruthii Wood ex Carruth.Carruth Sagewort, Carruth’s Sagebrush
Artemisia caucasica Willd.
Artemisia chamaemelifolia Vill.
Artemisia cina O.Berg & C.F.SchmidtSantonica, Levant Wormseed
Artemisia ciniformis Krasch. & Popov ex Poljakov
Artemisia commutata Besser
Artemisia compacta Fisch. ex DC.
Artemisia cuspidata Krasch.
Artemisia czukavinae Filatova
Artemisia daghestanica Krasch. & Poretzky
Artemisia demissa Krasch.
Artemisia depauperata Krasch.
Artemisia deserti Krasch.
Artemisia desertorum Spreng.
Artemisia diffusa Krasch. ex Poljakov
Artemisia dimoana Popov
Artemisia dolosa Krasch.
Artemisia douglasiana Bess.Douglas’ Mugwort, Douglas’ Sagewort
Artemisia dracunculus L.Tarragon
Artemisia dubia Wall.
Artemisia dubjanskyana Krasch. ex Poljakov
Artemisia dumosa Poljakov
Artemisia elongata Filatova & Ladygina
Artemisia eremophila Krasch. & Butkov ex Poljakov
Artemisia eriantha Ten.
Artemisia feddei H.Lév. & Vaniot
Artemisia fedtschenkoana Krasch.
Artemisia ferganensis Krasch. ex Poljakov
Artemisia filifolia Torr.Sand Sagebrush, Sand Sagebush, Silvery Wormwood
Artemisia flava Jurtzev
Artemisia franserioides GreeneRagweed Sagebrush
Artemisia freyniana (Pamp.) Krasch.
Artemisia frigida Willd.Fringed Sagebrush, Fringed Sagewort, Prairie Sagewort
Artemisia fulvella Filatova & Ladygina
Artemisia furcata Bieb.Forked Wormwood
Artemisia galinae Ikonn.
Artemisia genipi Weber ex Stechm.
Artemisia glabella Kar. & Kir.
Artemisia glacialis L.Glacier Wormwood, Alpine Mugwort
Artemisia glanduligera Krasch. ex Poljakov
Artemisia glauca Pall. ex Willd.
Artemisia glaucina Krasch. ex Poljakov
Artemisia globosa Krasch.
Artemisia globularia Cham. ex Bess.Purple Wormwood
Artemisia glomerata Ledeb.Cudweed Sagewort, Pacific Alpine Wormwood
Artemisia gmelinii Webb ex StechmannGmelin’s Wormwood
Artemisia gnaphalodes Nutt.
Artemisia gorjaevii Poljakov
Artemisia gracilescens Krasch. & Iljin
Artemisia granatensis Boiss. ex DC.
Artemisia gurganica (Krasch.) Filatova
Artemisia gypsacea Krasch., Popov & Lincz. ex Poljakov
Artemisia halodendron Turcz. ex Besser
Artemisia halophila Krasch.
Artemisia heptapotamica Poljakov
Artemisia herba-alba AssoWhite Wormwood
Artemisia hippolyti Butkov
Artemisia hololeuca M.Bieb. ex Besser
Artemisia hulteniana Vorosch.
Artemisia incana (L.) Druce
Artemisia indica Willd.Yomogi
Artemisia insulana Krasch.
Artemisia insularis Kitam.
Artemisia integrifolia L.
Artemisia issykkulensis Poljakov
Artemisia jacutica Drobow
Artemisia japonica Thunb.Otoko Yomogi
Artemisia juncea Kar. & Kir.
Artemisia karatavica Krasch. & Abolin ex Poljakov
Artemisia karavajevii Leonova
Artemisia kaschgarica Krasch.
Artemisia kauaiensis (Skottsberg) SkottsbergʻĀhinahina, Kauaʻi Wormwood
Artemisia keiskeana Miq.
Artemisia kelleri Krasch.
Artemisia kemrudica Krasch.
Artemisia knorringiana Krasch.
Artemisia kochiiformis Krasch. & Lincz. ex Poljakov
Artemisia koidzumii Nakai
Artemisia kopetdaghensis Krasch. ex Poljakov
Artemisia korovinii Poljakov
Artemisia korshinskyi Krasch. ex Poljakov
Artemisia krushiana Bess.Krush’s Wormwood
Artemisia kulbadica Boiss. & Buhse
Artemisia kuschakewiczii C.G.A.Winkl.
Artemisia laciniata Willd.Siberian Wormwood
Artemisia laciniatiformis Kom.
Artemisia lagocephala (Besser) DC.
Artemisia lagopus Fisch. ex Besser
Artemisia lanata Willd.
Artemisia latifolia Ledeb.
Artemisia ledebouriana Besser
Artemisia lehmanniana Bunge
Artemisia leontopodioides Fisch. ex Besser
Artemisia lessingiana Besser
Artemisia leucodes Schrenk
Artemisia leucophylla (Turcz. ex Besser) Pamp.
Artemisia leucotricha Krasch. ex Ladygina
Artemisia lindleyana Bess.Columbia River Wormwood
Artemisia lipskyi Poljakov
Artemisia littoricola Kitam.
Artemisia longifolia Nutt.Longleaf Sagebrush, Longleaf Wormwood
Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt.Gray Sagewort, Prairie Sage, White Sagebrush
Artemisia macilenta (Maxim.) Krasch.
Artemisia macrantha Ledeb.
Artemisia macrobotrys Ledeb.Yukon Wormwood
Artemisia macrocephala Jacq. ex Besser
Artemisia macrorhiza Turcz.
Artemisia maracandica Bunge
Artemisia maritima L.Sea Wormwood
Artemisia marschalliana Spreng.
Artemisia martjanovii Krasch. ex Poljakov
Artemisia mauiensis (A.Gray) SkottsbergʻĀhinahina, Maui Wormwood
Artemisia maximovicziana Krasch. ex Poljakov
Artemisia medioxima Krasch. ex Poljakov
Artemisia messerschmidtiana Besser
Artemisia michauxiana Bess.Michaux Sagebrush, Michaux’s Wormwood
Artemisia minor Jacq. ex Besser
Artemisia mogoltavica Poljakov
Artemisia mongolica (Besser) Fisch. ex Nakai
Artemisia mongolorum Krasch.
Artemisia montana (Nakai) Pamp.
Artemisia mucronulata Poljakov
Artemisia multisecta Leonova
Artemisia mutellina Vill.
Artemisia nachitschevanica Rzazade
Artemisia nakaii Pamp.
Artemisia namanganica Poljakov
Artemisia nana Gaudin
Artemisia negrei Ouyahya
Artemisia nesiotica RavenIsland Sagebrush
Artemisia nigricans Filatova & Ladygina
Artemisia niitakayamensis Hayata
Artemisia nilagirica (C.B.Clarke) Pamp.
Artemisia nitida Bertol.
Artemisia nortonii Pamp.
Artemisia norvegica Fr.Norwegian Mugwort
Artemisia nova A.Nels.Black Sagebrush
Artemisia nuristanica Kitam.
Artemisia obscura Pamp.
Artemisia obtusa Rydb.
Artemisia obtusiloba Ledeb.
Artemisia occidentalisichuanensis Y.R.Ling & S.Y.Zhao
Artemisia occidentalisinensis Y.R.Ling
Artemisia oelandica (Besser) Krasch.
Artemisia olchonensis Leonova
Artemisia oliveriana J.Gay ex Besser
Artemisia ordosica Krasch.
Artemisia orientalixizangensis Y.R.Ling & Humphries
Artemisia orientaliyunnanensis Y.R.Ling
Artemisia orthobotrys Kitag.
Artemisia packardiae J.Grimes & ErtterPackard’s Wormwood, Succor Creek Sagebrush
Artemisia pallasiana Fisch. ex Besser
Artemisia palmeri A.GraySan Diego Sagewort
Artemisia palustris L.
Artemisia pannosa Krasch.
Artemisia papposa S.F.Blake & Cronq.Owyhee Sage, Owyhee Sagebrush
Artemisia parryi A.GrayParry’s Wormwood
Artemisia pattersonii A.GrayPatterson’s Wormwood
Artemisia pectinata Pall.
Artemisia pedatifida Nutt.Birdfoot Sagebrush
Artemisia pedemontana Balb.
Artemisia persica Boiss.
Artemisia pewzowii C.G.A.Winkl.
Artemisia phaeolepis Krasch.
Artemisia polysticha Poljakov
Artemisia pontica L.Roman Wormwood
Artemisia porrecta Krasch. ex Poljakov
Artemisia porteri Cronq.Porter’s Wormwood
Artemisia prasina Krasch. ex Poljak.
Artemisia princeps Pamp.Japanese Mugwort, Yomogi
Artemisia proceriformis Krasch.
Artemisia prolixa Krasch. ex Poljak.
Artemisia punctigera Krasch. ex Poljakov
Artemisia purshiana Besser
Artemisia pycnocephala (Less.) DC.Beach Wormwood
Artemisia pycnorhiza Ledeb.
Artemisia pygmaea A.GrayPygmy Sagebrush
Artemisia quinqueloba Trautv.
Artemisia remotiloba Krasch. ex Poljakov
Artemisia rhodantha Rupr.
Artemisia rigida (Nutt.) A.GrayScabland Sagebrush
Artemisia rothrockii A.GrayTimberline Sagebrush
Artemisia roxburghiana Wall. ex Besser
Artemisia rubripes Nakai
Artemisia rupestris L.Rock Wormwood
Artemisia rutifolia Stephan ex Spreng.
Artemisia sacrorum Ledeb. ex Hook.f.
Artemisia saissanica (Krasch.) Filatova
Artemisia saitoana Kitam.
Artemisia salsoloides Willd.
Artemisia samoiedorum Pamp.
Artemisia santolina Schrenk
Artemisia santolinifolia Turcz. ex Besser
Artemisia santonica L.
Artemisia saposhnikovii Krasch. ex Poljak.
Artemisia schischkinii Krasch.
Artemisia schrenkiana Ledeb.
Artemisia scoparia Waldst. & Kit.Redstem Wormwood
Artemisia scopiformis Ledeb.
Artemisia scopulorum A.GrayAlpine Sagebrush, Dwarf Sagebrush
Artemisia scotina Nevski
Artemisia senjavinensis Bess.Arctic Wormwood
Artemisia semiarida (Krasch. & Lavrenko) Filatova
Artemisia senjavinensis Besser
Artemisia sericea Weber ex Stechm.
Artemisia serotina Bunge
Artemisia serrata Nutt.Sawtooth Wormwood
Artemisia sieversiana Willd.
Artemisia skorniakowii C.G.A.Winkl.
Artemisia sogdiana Bunge
Artemisia songarica Schrenk
Artemisia spicigera K.Koch
Artemisia spinescens D.C.Eaton–Budsage
[ = Picrothamnus desertorum ]

Artemisia splendens Willd.
Artemisia stelleriana Bess.Hoary Mugwort or Dusty Miller (one of several plants with this name)
Artemisia stenocephala Krasch. ex Poljak.
Artemisia stenophylla Kitam.
Artemisia stolonifera (Maxim.) Kom.
Artemisia subarctica Krasch.
Artemisia subchrysolepis Filatova
Artemisia sublessingiana Krasch. ex Poljakov
Artemisia subsalsa Filatova
Artemisia subviscosa Turcz. ex Besser
Artemisia succulenta Ledeb.
Artemisia suksdorfii PiperCoastal Wormwood
Artemisia sylvatica Maxim.
Artemisia szowitziana (Besser) Grossh.
Artemisia tanacetifolia L.
Artemisia taurica Willd.
Artemisia tenuisecta Nevski
Artemisia terrae-albae Krasch.
Artemisia tianschanica Krasch. ex Poljak.
Artemisia tilesii Ledeb.Tilesius’ Wormwood
Artemisia tomentella Trautv.
Artemisia tournefortiana Rchb.
Artemisia transbaicalensis Leonova
Artemisia transiliensis Poljakov
Artemisia trautvetteriana Besser
Artemisia tridentata Nutt.Big Sagebrush, Blue Sage, Black Sage, Basin Sagebrush
Artemisia triniana Besser
Artemisia tripartita Rydb.Threetip Sagebrush
Artemisia turanica Krasch.
Artemisia turcomanica Gand.
Artemisia umbelliformis Lam.Alps Wormwood
Artemisia unalaskensis Rydb.
Artemisia underwoodii Rydb.
Artemisia uralensis Spreng. ex Besser
Artemisia uraorum Hultén
Artemisia uzbekistanica Poljakov
Artemisia vachanica Krasch. ex Poljak.
Artemisia valida Krasch. ex Poljak.
Artemisia verlotiorum LamotteChinese Wormwood
Artemisia viridis Willd.
Artemisia vulgaris L.Mugwort
Artemisia wallichiana Besser
Artemisia waltonii J.R.Drumm. ex Pamp.
Artemisia wudanica Liou & W.Wang
Artemisia wulingshanensis Bar. & Skv. ex Liou
Artemisia wurzellii C.M.James & Stace
Artemisia xerophila Magnier
Artemisia xerophytica Krasch.
Artemisia xylorhiza Krasch. ex Filatova
Artemisia yadongensis Ling & Y.R.Ling
Artemisia yongii Y.R.Ling
Artemisia younghusbandii J.R.Drumm. ex Pamp.
Artemisia zayuensis Y.R.Ling
Artemisia zhaodongensis G.Y.Chang & M.Y.Liou
Artemisia zhongdianensis Y.R.Ling
Artemisia zollingeriana Sch.Bip.[8]

[edit] Formerly placed here

[edit] Classification

Classification of Artemisia is difficult.[4] Pre-2000 divisions of Artemisia into subgenera or sections have not been backed up by molecular data,[3] but much of the molecular data, as of 2006, is not especially strong.[4] The following identified groups do not include all the species in the genus.

[edit] Section Tridentatae

Section Tridentatae consists of nine to eleven species of shrubs, which are very prominent parts of the flora in western North America.[10] In some classifications they are part of the genus or subgenus Seriphidium, although they do not seem to be closely related to the Asian Seriphidium species.[3] To be monophyletic, section Tridentatae should exclude Artemisia bigelovii and Artemisia palmeri.[3][10]

Section Tridentatae includes above species with exception of Artemisia longiloba, which is treated as a subspecies of Artemisia arbuscula. Section Nebulae includes Artemisia californica, Artemisia nesiotica, and Artemisia filifolia.[11]

[edit] Old World Seriphidium

The Old World species which different classifications put into the genus or subgenus Seriphidium consist of about 125 species native to Europe and temperate Asia, with the largest number of species in Central Asia.[12] Some classifications, such as that of the Flora of North America, exclude any New World plants from Seriphidium.[4] They are herbaceous plants or small shrubs.[12]

[edit] Subgenus Dracunculus

One group which is well-supported by molecular data is subgenus Dracunculus. It consists of 80 species found in both North America and Eurasia,[4] of which the best-known is perhaps Artemisia dracunculus, the spice tarragon.

[edit] Notes

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Artemisia
Wikispecies has information related to: Artemisia
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This article uses bare URLs for citations. Please consider adding full citations so that the article remains verifiable in the future. Several templates and the Reflinks tool are available to assist in formatting. (Reflinks documentation) (August 2011)
  1. ^ “Genus: Artemisia L.”. Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2007-04-13. Retrieved 2011-02-14.
  2. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
  3. ^ a b c d L.E. Watson, 2002
  4. ^ a b c d e f “119. Artemisia Linnaeus”. Flora of North America. 2006.
  5. ^ Etymology
  6. ^ Etymology
  7. ^ “Artemisia australis”. Hawaiian Native Plant Propagation Database. University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa. Retrieved 2009-03-06.
  8. ^ Artemisia. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2011-02-14.
  9. ^ “GRIN Species Records of Artemisia. Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2011-02-14.
  10. ^ a b Amy B. Kornkven; Linda E. Watson; James R. Estes; Amy B. Kornkven; Linda E. Watson; James R. Estes (1998). “Phylogenetic Analysis of Artemisia Section Tridentatae (Asteraceae) Based on Sequences from the Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS) of Nuclear Ribosomal DNA”. American Journal of Botany 85 (12): 1787. doi:10.2307/2446513. JSTOR 2446513.
  11. ^ Shultz, L.M. (2009). “Revision of Artemisia subgenus Tridentatae”. Systematic Botany Monographs 89: 1–131.
  12. ^ a b “22. Seriphidium (Besser ex Hook.) Fourr.”. Flora of Pakistan.

[edit] References

[edit] External links

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